In the middle 40s, the William V.S. Tubman administration
followed through with the gradual deforestation that
continued as a strategy for national development.
In 1944, Tubman instituted the "Open Door Policy"
which laid the groundwork for extensive land use and
industrialization. Tubman's policy was designed to
encourage foreign investment in Liberia, which would
freely develop iron ore deposits and other mineral
resources. (Hayman, A. I. & Preece, H. 1943. Lighting
Up Liberia. New York: Creative Age Press, Inc.) (The
African Repository, Library of Congress) Under this
policy, investors were exempted from taxes. For example,
Colonel Lansdell K. Christie, a New York native was
the first businessman to answer to President Tubman’s
Open Door Policy. This paid off when he successfully
bargained and acquired a mining right in 1946 to mainly
exploited iron ore deposits, in the Bomi Range with
its highest grade of ore containing about 66 percent
iron. The “Christie Foundation,” the Liberian
Mining Company, first major mining operation became
the second major industrial company to Firestone Rubber
Plantations Company. (http:bomihills.org/Liberia.html)
“Monkey work, baboon draw" (a common reference
by Liberians concerning corruption and development)
became a practice of Liberia’s policy makers
through which, corrupt and selfish leaders use to
enrich themselves at the expense of the Liberian people.
This has become a pattern - evidence by an overt negligence
of Liberia’s critical assets in the name of
foreign investment. This approach or practice has
been an obnoxious misallocation of Liberia's indispensable
The question that one may then ask is, how was Liberia to be developed or how could reforestation take place when it was never a crucial part of these agreements? The environmental consequences of development were certainly not a priority. Many feasibility studies were implemented by experts, who often had connections with companies interested in doing business in Liberia. The bias in this unbalanced business pattern allowed experts and neutral third parties to have allegiance with these companies. Most of the recommendations reached by these unbiased experts never included any environmental or ecological faults. Challenges were not made in most cases as the nation did not have the experts to make them, especially when the populace was not brought up-to-date on these future impacts. As long as the corporation's presence kept the government economically stable, the future plight of the environment, after these companies have left, was sadly a task left to future generations. One of the tragedies in the history of Liberia is that her leaders are usually misled by the word "development" or “money talks.”
There is a need to undertake an integrative model of environmental management for Liberia and its people to deal with issue of negative external ideas and influences or better approach for foreign ideas and influences to harness it into positive national development. Development is the act and process of making improvement. A definition of development does not state the final conditions. It means the process of making something better. Therefore, the Liberian government must be aware that some developments could be detrimental to the country's future, culture and heritage. India's late Prime Minister Gandhi epitomized this point when she addressed a conference in Stockholm on Human Environment: "A higher standard of living must be achieved without alienating the people from their heritage." There should be no fear in the minds of those who are in power to demand answers from companies that come to Liberia in the name of development. Herein, development should mean what these companies must leave behind, which are favorable conditions that will sustain the Liberian people in years to come and not what these companies carry with them and leave behind conditions that are likely to lead to lifetime destruction.
At this juncture, Liberia is at peril due to an assault on the sacred reverence of its environment by those who have limited knowledge on how we expressed our affinity with the environment. And such a denial of Liberia’s universal validity is nothing less than an assault on its intrinsic values and spirituality. Liberians must resist this assault now. Liberians must never remain silent to the slow death of its environment. Indeed, there are laws that cover some aspects of environmental controls. They should be given “teeth”, made stronger and clearer. For example, Article 33 of the Health Ministry Laws of Liberia prohibits the dumping of waste in Liberian waters. However, during past administrations, the Minister of Planning, or whichever ministry/department is responsible for contract negotiation, allowed large companies like the National Ore Mining Company at Mano River, LAMCO and Bong Mining Companies to pollute the St. John River, the Mano River and their tributaries with iron ore dust and other residues of the iron ore production process. Even areas set aside by preceding governments for conservation and or scientific inquiry like the Sarpo National Park and Gola National Forest in Upper Cape Mount County and Lower Lofa County are in and off of the hands of logging companies or at the mercy of poachers, says Mr. Alexander Peal of Conservation International/Liberia. Traditional deforestation or small farming has become the order of the day as the result of not having in place national programs for alternative and systematic management.
In the 1980s, the Liberian government decided to allocate more than 284,000 acres in Sinoe County for the University of Liberia to conduct forestry studies and other scientific research. In 2000 those areas were turned over to Oriental Timber Company (OTC). In retrospect, it is not in our national interest to have an environmental protection law during the administration of one leader and it becomes non-existent under another administration. It is due to the lack of national priority or proper environmental policy and clear delineation of vision that the Upper Guinea Forest with its estimated 551 diversities of species of mammals, are under threat without realizing that these vast insect populations play a critical role in our ecosystems. Some insects are of particular importance to our agricultural well-being as soil modifiers. For example, while we may see termites as ants that have nothing to do but bites those who trouble them, termites are both friend and foe to our environment.
In colonies ants enhance soil fertility by transporting and concentrating fertile subsoil clays near the surface and by increasing soil aeration. Some of the species in the forest, 45% of which is owned by our country, cannot be found anywhere else in the world. That in itself is not just good news for tourist’s attraction but a divine blessing. YLII logging activities of the Exotic Tropical Timber Enterprise (ETTE) is decimating these ecosystems leaving nothing for our people.
Between 1997 and 2001 the company increased it activities by 1.3%, decimating about 12% of the forest’s 727,900 square-kilometers. Presently, one of Liberia’s rarest and sacred wonders, the Mt. Gibi’s Oracle, a “rock kitchen” upheld by two rock pillars, which extends against the walls of the mountain and resembles the Hanging Garden of Babylon, is also under threat of destruction. Environmental destruction threatens rarest and sacred white bats and Zhor birds, known for their unusual long necks that are endemic in that region. Other wildlife in the vicinities of Mt. Gibi and its sister Mt. Zeesiah are facing similar fates. (Larway, 2004) A rare rock of the waterfalls, containing human footprints, could be stolen or destroyed at any moment. The current expulsion of 60,000 Bassa villagers by LAC is classic example of the abuse directed at the Liberian people, along with gross human rights violations and the destruction of the environment for which presidential aspirants and current leaders of the country remain mute.
Liberians could learn a thing or two from the Sudanese civil war that killed over a million people and an estimated 3.5 million displaced refugees as the world looks on. While this conflict has many causes, the primary factors of the recent catastrophe derived from systematic or protracted environmental from deforestation, which turned majority of the area into sand dooms. Having too many citizens and not enough land for farming and competition led to this sad event. (See Mohamed Suliman’s article, Civil War in Sudan: The Impact of Ecological Degradation, 1995). My point here is while Liberia is sparsely populated and its population was decimated by its 14 years civil war, Liberians must avoid a Sudanese-like future conflict, if at all Liberia can use history as a divine rod of guidance.
Frankly, changing weather patterns cannot be averted when the environment is destroyed. Despite our richness of vegetation, some of our soils are poor, therefore Liberians need to change their appetite for foreign concessions now. Deforestation can only increase the already heavy rainfall in the area, which will be acidified as rain passes through organic material on the forest floor and leaches most of the mineral content from the upper soil layers. Such will result to oxisols ore quite infertile, forcing plants to gain most of their nutrient needs from decaying vegetation. When one travel throughout Liberia today, especially where deforestation is ongoing, oxisols, a reddish or yellowish in color, reflecting the high concentrations of iron and aluminum compounds in them are everywhere. Plants do not grow on this type of soil.
The pace at which the environment is being depleted suggests that Liberia stands to suffer additional consequences now being experienced by some nations around the world. The next reason for which Liberia must act now is that over the past two years, several Asian nations suffered exceptionally heavy losses from natural disasters. These loses are put at about US$ billion of dollars. In 1998, extreme floods devastated several countries including Bangladesh, China and Viet Nam. El Niño-related droughts caused water shortages and forest fires in Indonesia and the Philippines. A Ten-meter tsunami hit Papua New Guinea killing more than 2,000 people in several coastal villages while the Kobe earthquake of 1995 killed over 5,000 people and caused tremendous damage. In economic terms, the damage from recent floods in Bangladesh was estimated at more than 5 per cent of the gross domestic product. Also, Japan’s Kobe earthquake cost over US$100 billion. Recently, tropical storm Jeanne with its mudslide and heavy rains in Haiti killed more than 1,500 people. Changing global climate contributed to 150,000 dead in 2000. (World Health Organization, 2000).
In the December 6, 2004 article, “Filipinos Scramble to Escape Villages”, Oliver Teves underscored the end results of our changing world weather due to environmental factors. “Back-to-back storms that killed at least 568 and left hundreds missing contributing to flash floods and mudslides that swept away hundreds of houses, roads and bridges in what has been the southeast Asian nation's worst storm season in 13 years”, he concluded. As of this moment, nations like Indonesia, India, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Somalia (an African nation 3,000 miles from the Indonesia earthquake), have lost an estimated 23,000 people as the result of an earthquake, one of the most powerful ones in the in four decades, measuring magnitude 9, contributing a tsunamis across the Indian Ocean. Besides the missing of thousand citizen peoples, diseases like malaria and cholera are expected due to destroyed sanitation, sanitary problems, polluted drinking water, and that the cost of the catastrophe would is expected to be several billions of dollars (Jan Egeland, the U.N. Emergency Relief Coordinator) (ABC News).
Make no mistake! Climate change as a result of Liberian environmental degradation will have an adverse impact on Liberian people’s health in occurrence of vector-borne diseases such as Malaria, Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, etc. When the forests are all gone and rainfall rises above normal levels, collecting and stagnating or still water will provide excellent breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) puts the consequences into proper perspective. Accordingly, an estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from intense malaria annually. The impact is critical for women of childbearing age, many of whom will suffer from anemia, thereby prompting premature delivery and low birth-weight. As such, malaria is a primary disease in Africa and a primary cause of poverty of which Liberia is a part. For the most part, not only nine out of 10 episodes occur in south Saharan Africa, but also Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) today would surpass 32 if malaria had been eradicated 35 years ago on this issue. (See Harvard University’s Research, 2001).
Liberia’s current environmental action will produce the climatic conditions in Liberia that creates a conducive breeding ground for malaria-transmitting mosquitoes, which have over the years will become hard to control because they have developed a resistance to insecticides. Liberians need not run head on with the disasters that are manageable. Nations like Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, just to name a few that have experienced the same fate, are now turning their nation around. For example, Zambia has embarked on an anti-malaria drive, an integrated, community-based approach that aims at selling nets and insecticide in districts grappling with the tasks of controlling the spread of malaria. In this case environmental protection is at center stage. The Japanese government has partnership with the Zambian government to supply them with pesticide-treated mosquito nets, malaria drugs, and other paraphernalia for their program.
We now know that chloroquine -- the cheapest anti-malarial drug is useless as patients or Africans have developed resistance to it and global warming, which is encouraging malaria vectors to flourish to the development of world-wide parasite resistance to anti-malaria drugs, is not helping the situation. (Gerald Keusch, Multilateral Initiative on Malaria) Furthermore, Liberia is experiencing an unusual extremely hot dry season temperature. Though research has yet to confirm if Liberians are dying from hot temperature, an estimated 20,000 people who died as the result of extremely hot temperatures in Europe (ABC News, 2004), is a classic example and a fate in which Liberia is not excluded. Unlike Liberia, these nations have the resources and manpower.
Who will come to Liberia’s assistance or give the country $100 billion dollars to rebuild its ruined infrastructures when these sorts of natural disasters befall the country because of deforestation? We do ourselves no good when communities that have traditionally managed Liberia’s forests are disgraced by recent changes in their political systems to the point where their customs have been destroyed. In an article written by the Samfu Foundation, the concessions listed below were named as the concessions responsible for the destruction and deforestation of Liberia:
• Oriental Timber Company/NLI
• Maryland Wood Processing Industry
• Inland Logging Company
• Royal Timber Corporation
• United Logging Corporation
• Togba Timber Company
• Mohammed Group of Companies
• Iberic Liberia Forest Corporation
• Cavalla Timber Company
• Liberia Wood Management Company/CBI
• Akari Timber Industry
• Xanon Liberia Limited
• American Wood Processing Company
• Forest Hill Corporation
• Bureaux Ivorian Ngorian
• Tropical Logging Company
• Tropical Lumber Company
Imagine the sort of damage these companies are inflicting
on Liberia! As mentioned before, a forest's watershed
protection value alone can exceed the worth of its
timber. Beyond that, the ecosystems of forests provide
habitat for birds and insects that pollinate crops
and control pests. Their roots hold soil in place,
reduce erosion and control the runoff of water. And
by storing vast amounts of carbon, forests help stabilize
the global climate.
How can Liberians continue to allow these foreign companies free rein over our lifeline while the government of Liberia and leaders sit supinely in Monrovia do nothing about it? Do Liberians know what else they are taking out of the country and what they are leaving behind? Between 1997 and 2001 the export value (CBM) was 797,600.109 with a dollars value of $81, 346,993.69. For the most part, illegal wood exports from the areas under armed control by the various rebels or armed groups during the civil war were estimated as $ 53 million annually. Even at our nation worst moment when nations like France and Ivory Coast should have helped to protect our lifeline, they were helping an supplying the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) with weaponry in exchange for precious tropical roundwood and incentives of forest concessions and mining (Miguel A. Soto, Greenpeace Spain, April 2000; (Liberian Forestry Development Authority, Annual Report 1999; The World Guide 1997/98).
The agony is that there is no incentive to the local people in terms of thoroughfares, schools, hospitals and equities. How big is Liberia to have publicly-owned forests not looked upon as opportunities for collective management of valuable resources? Why are they perceived as "free" commodities to be used by anyone, free from government regulation? Why they forests are not being managed for the common good of this generation and those yet to inherit it? Why are they being abused and neglected?
Liberia’s national relationship suffers when the best brains and government are heavy-footed and refuse to come together. Unless there is a radical metamorphosis in which Liberians “mount wings like eagles”, the intruders and peace agents will be only concerned with prolonging the civil conflict, diamond deals, deforestation and sexual exploitation. Foreign concessions are not only hell-bent on plundering our forests and natural wealth, but wrecking the whole natural order: deforestation, clearing land, killing animals and other hidden assets. The uncontrolled squandering of our natural resources goes unchecked even though resources such as forests, rivers, marines, diamonds, wildlife, gold and soil, once used or exhausted, can never be restored. Something must be done, as soon as possible, to try to limit the scale of the disaster. It is already too late to avoid it completely, but prompt actions now could certainly help.
The Liberian people who are spiritually, medically and nutritionally linked to the forests, will bear a disproportionate burden of the nation's environmental deforestation, pollution of coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewage problems. Thousands of acres of flora and fauna (rainforest) are ruined. Liberia is witnessing unprecedented changes in the quality of its environment. Forests are being lost at an unparalleled pace. In other words, if the flora is cut and burned, the topsoil suffers massive erosion, water supplies are polluted or destroyed, and the wildlife is driven into shrinking areas of refuge. Potential life-saving medicinal herbs are lost forever and natural resources are destroyed for short-term gain. For example, “Pygeum africanum” (http://www.wholehealthmd.com) herbal medicine for prostate gland enlargement or urinary disorders found around Mt. Nimba environment that can bring in million of dollars if properly harvested, is being destroyed from mining. In addition, Liberia’s traditional universities (Poro and Sande), which can only be built and function in such a grove where discipline, survival, and leadership skills are taught by the College of Elders are being destroyed. One is left to wonder, is there anything in Liberia worth fighting for or saving with every fiber of one’s Liberian souls?
The ugliness of the destruction of the Poro and Sande universities at the hands of OTC is that they are now being replaced with brothels, which promote drugs use, gangsterism, prostitution and the sexual exploitation of young boys and girls between the ages of 12 to 15. Liberian children who are the “precious jewels” the nation, are forced to turn their backs on both schools to join the brothels now called “Zoe Bush”. (The Samfu Foundation, 2001) No wonder why Liberians are faced with the imminent danger of the spread of HIV/AIDS only to be a laughing stocks on the world stage. The health effect is also an issue of concern. The lack of proper sanitary facilities prompts the building of “all house” near rivers, streams and creeks that our people use for drinking, bathing and washing.
The term "environmental whey" describes an insidious form of discrimination and also refers to international and ethnic disparities in the formulation and enforcement of environmental laws and policies. Hazardous and toxic waste facilities, rubber coagulation, deforestation, pesticide and other polluting industries disproportionately impact the Liberian minority. Droughts and famines regularly follow environmental abuses. And children are the ones most victimized in such environmental scourge. Children under the age of five suffer the most from polluted water; elevated rates of cancer, heavy metals (lead poisoning), asthma, birth defects and other serious health problems. Despite the devastating and deadly health consequences directly related to environmental whey, the Swedish, German, Italian and US governments have failed to adequately address this issue. It is an open secret that the German, Italian, Swedish governments have environmental laws that businesses in these nations are obligated to obey protect the public health of all of its citizens. However, when these companies come to Liberia they simply do not take serious or evade our nation environmental regulations enacted to protect our nation from environmental hazards. Executives of these companies failed to adequately and equally enforce existing environmental laws with respect to people of Liberia. Or more accurately, Liberia does not exist in their minds.
Companies operating in Liberia should know that dumping iron ore wastes into rivers creates brown, red or yellow pigmentation and precipitation of iron oxides. Such practice is prohibited in Sweden, the United States and Germany where these companies are based. However, when these foreign concessionaires are granted mining rights in Liberia, the profits and loose laws of the country discouraged them from responsible ecological management of their wastes. For example, an investigation by LAMCO identified the contents of three sources of contamination as the following: (1) wash-off from tailing area into the rivers (St. John River, Cestos River-also known as Nuon in the Dan or Gio language- the Yar River, near Cocopa in Nimba) by heavy rains; (2) yellow clay precipitate from ore lateritic (rock decay that is red in color and has high oxide contents of iron and hydroxide of aluminum) originating in water washing down the mountainside; and (3) run-off from hematite ore. (See World Rainforest Movement
Report Uruguay); (Shannon, E.H., Dec. (1992). Mining and Environmental Impact assessment. ECOAFRIQUE - Environment and Social Policy Newsletter; vol. 1. No. 2. ADB).
This investigation (World Rainforest Movement Report) implied that LAMCO was not solely responsible for the pollution of the water because heavy rains also helped to carry the pollutants into the rivers. The company shamelessly reasoned that the heavy rains are contributing causes of pollution. But LAMCO failed to realize that prior to the mining operations, the color of the rivers was never "red or yellow." Secondly, LAMCO should have established a proper control system to prohibit the flow of the residue into rivers that provide fish and livelihood for thousand of Liberians and contribute to the safe ecology of the country.
The Firestone Rubber Plantation is another classic example of how Liberia’s waterways are polluted. Over the years, residues of pesticides and chemicals used in processing rubber were dumped into the Farmington River endangering the biomass and the villages, which developed along the river. The absence of public awareness of the health hazards posed by the polluted river and the continual use of the biomass by the Liberian people is a hidden national health problem. A problem, which has not been addressed by the previous and current Liberian governments or these companies because no one was willing to pinpoint the source. Again, our people are at the frontlines of this calamity. They cannot ship in clean water, fresh vegetables or fruits. All they have is their immediate surroundings.
It can be safely concluded that Firestone’s deliberate dumping of toxic chemicals, residues of formaldehyde and pesticides into the river is a homicide. It is a homicide because the Liberian people are drinking untreated water from the tributaries of the river. Deirdre Griswold argues that: "Workers also complained that they feel ill from spraying trees with Difolatan, which enhances latex production. In the United States, federal health officials list Difolatan as a 'known or suspected carcinogen' that can and cause asthma and skin irritation. After all those years in which the Firestone corporation paid tens of thousands of workers just pennies an hour--and had them shot down if they organized and fought back--what did this corporation do with all the money it made? (See the Mother Moore Magazine or Firestone abuse of Liberian Labors) All those who use the river are at the mercy of these toxins. Those toxins kill people. Even the river’s plant and animal life cannot escape this catastrophe. Besides fresh water pollution, Liberia's coastal waters are major sources of pollution from oil residues dumped by large oil tankers, oil cargo handling and offshore petroleum drilling. These environmental tragedies are a direct result of the Liberian government negligence in establishing and enforcing meaningful regulatory policies, plus engaging ill-fated in economic and development policies. Liberian leaders have been led to believe that if the country’s rivers are not navigable or do not have commercial values, then they are of no importance- one of the several political reasons why the rivers are polluted. The fact that all of the waterways in Liberia have ecological value and the essence of God in them, is of little importance to these so-called investors and leaders.
RECOMMENDATIONS: THE WAY FORWARD
The 4th republic must be a dawning of a day for Integrated National Environment Management for Liberia that must be legislatively enacted and constitutionally approved by the government. A policy of implementation must be initiated, which will address urgent administrative issues, the development of an Integrated Environment Management and legislative measures. The following administrative actions must be heeded to as a matter of urgency
· BSc. in Environmental Education at all the major institutions of learning in Liberia
· Research program at the nation higher institutions of learning to enhance the management of Liberia’s rich biological heritage
· Establish Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) through structured consultations and negotiations, to ensure that no deforestation without proactive and verifiable measures are adhered to
· Investigate a remediation fund for re-forestation using unemployed ex-combatants
· Review this Integrated National Environment Management policy on an on-going basis
· Legal framework or using the Constitution or Supreme Court whichever one have teeth to clearly delineate irrevocable, monitor able and enforceable environmental protection act or “do nots” list for the nation
· Developed prerequisite human resource such a “park rangers”, housing, vehicles, education, training which will be enforced and monitored
· Establishment of a Wetland College/Institute or program and ask donor nations to train 25 train-the trainer or instructors
ensuring the future environmental and ecological health of the nation must be of primary concern.
First Liberians must reverse the political conditions that have immensely weakened the little environmental laws on records. It is worth mentioning that there is the Environmental Protection Agency, but there are no established standards and the legal prosecution of violators is almost an impossible venture. Of course, on paper, Liberian has some of the world's strictest logging laws, but the government enforced these laws so lightly that these companies feel that they can do anything and get away with it, which they have don and continue to do.
It is in this frame of reference that this writer seeks the support of like minded individuals, organizations and countries to see how we can exchange ideas, work together in coming up with meaningful integrated environmental management solutions to the continuing environmental destruction in Liberia. “If remain unattended, these issues could disrupt the basic life support, deterioration which could certainly result in food shortages, shelter problems and rapid deterioration of the bases of fuel/energy medicine and safe drinking water. Economic development of Liberia is highly dependent on the resources of the natural environment of which special habitats (such as wetlands) are a very important component”, says Dr. Fodee Kromah, Executive Director National Environmental Commission.
The Liberian nation is in urgent need of the creative talents of all her sons and daughters. We must call for an end to environmental exploitation and cheap marketing of such products. As it stands now, there is only one way, which must ensure the sustainable use of Liberia’s national resources whose management or sustainability lies within the frameworks of transparent policy, training and research. It is inconsequential for those living abroad to waste a lifetime waiting for the right opportunity, the right international organizations, or the right men or women to come along to fix things, protect the environment and rebuild Liberia, when Liberians could do it themselves. Liberia is not only going “bald”, but suffering from a huge brain drain. The lack of a committed national leadership and meaningful socio-economic development are profound. Liberians need to make whatever contributions they are capable of contributing toward the rebuilding of Liberia and the protection of its geological beauty.
There must be ground for hope that this will happen as soon as possible. If Liberians show collective concern for their nation’s environment it will create the needed energy. Liberians have the power to move beyond fear and anger and remember the necessity of having a protected environment in post-conflict Liberia — for the sake of its spirituality, self-preservation and especially for generations to come. Liberians need to act now! For Liberians are at another critical fulcrum points in the history of the country. The decision we make today, will shape our future.
Our roots lie beneath those giant mountains, rivers, lakes, mangroves, swamps beds that geographically define Liberia, therefore, we have every right and responsibility to fight for its environmental protection, rebirth, growth, and ascension to the highest pinnacle. Though these forest canopies supports numerous species of mammals, our umbilical chords and the fossils of our parents, they are also anchored on top tropical canopy in Liberia, so we must return to our roots and help rebuild Liberia. On this issue, we need to come together regardless of our ethnic backgrounds or the organizations to which we belong, and find a common solution to the environment problems in Liberia.
____________________________________________________________________________________________Syrulwa About the author: Dr. Syrulwa Somah is an Associate Professor of Environmental and Occupational Safety and Health at NC A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina. He is author of: The Historical Resettlement of Liberia and Its Environmental Impact, Christianity, Colonization and State of African Spirituality, and Nyanyan Gohn-Manan: History, Migration & Government of the Bassa (a book about traditional Bassa leadership and cultural norms published in 2003). Somah is also the Executive Director of the Liberian History, Education & Development, Inc. (LIHEDE), a nonprofit organization based in Greensboro, North Carolina. He can be reached at: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org