Has Our Independence Met Its Promise?

 

By Martin K. N. Kollie





The Perspective
Atlanta, Georgia
July 15, 2015

                  



 
 
 
 

Long before the declaration of our Independence in 1847, the freedom of our forebears to dictate their own political and economic destiny was under hostage.  For 25 unbroken years, the sovereignty and self-governance of a land which would later be known as Liberia was determined by an International Non-Governmental Organization (INGO) called the American Colonization Society.

After several years of hard labor and inhumane treatment in the United States, the chain of slavery was finally untied from the hands and legs of black slaves. In 1822, a new territory in Africa call Liberia was founded by the ACS to accommodate freed black slaves. I can imagine how though it was for these settlers to safely sail on a dark continent like Africa. Even though it was difficult traveling long distances, but nothing could easily bend their determination from seeking refuge in a new home where freedom was accessible.

On February 6, 1821, the first batch of 88 immigrants left New York and harbored in Liberia. This was a new beginning of establishing a young nation. Upon the arrival of these settlers, they met indigenous occupants on ground with unique cultural pattern and values. Americo-Liberians were gently given an olive branch by original owners of this soil at the time. As a result of indigenous’ kindness and generosity, Americo-Liberians had breathing space to co-exist on the Providence Island.    

After few months, the interest of these strangers grew larger. Their quest for expansion became a paramount priority. The memory of slavery was still fresh on their minds. As a result, they had no intention to unite with those they met on ground. Instead, colonists thought it was a good idea to promote disunity and disintegration by subjecting the natives to unjust and inhuman treatments. 

Internal bickering and power struggle became the order of the day. There were series of wars between the colonists and indigenes. This was a bitter start for Liberia! I think if two parties (both natives and settlers) were going to cordially cultivate unity from the very beginning, our country would have been a better society. Regrettably, deep division characterized the formation of Africa’s first Independent nation.

From 1821 to 1847, Liberians were indirectly ruled by foreigners. From the Colonial to Commonwealth era, the determination of self-governance was invisible. The British and French also took advantage of a conflict-ridden settlement by encroaching on our land. Even though there was segregation, but delegates from various colonies were ready to embrace an independent status after two and the half decades of external control and threats. Their readiness was uncompromising!

A new and lone nation in Africa was finally given birth to at an official constitutional convention held in 1847. There were 12 delegates from Montserrado, Sinoe, and Grand Bassa Counties who subsequently adopted the declaration of independence and constitution on July 16, 1847.  At long last, on July 26, 1847, a young African American man from Virginia named Joseph Jenkins Roberts declared the colony of Liberia an Independent Republic. The Lonestar rose above Africa as an inspiration to other colonized territories. Our country became known worldwide from that moment. Many saw us as a symbol of hope and a shining star of democratic radiation in Africa. 

I am left to wonder why Long Peter, Sao Boso, and other native Kings didn’t participate in this crucial convention even though they were an integral part of the society.  It is left with you to answer this question. Despite the situation, there were unique promises made during Independence. Those promises are still loud in our ears and can never be forgotten. The promise of self-determination, security, freedom, peace, unity, equality, dignity, justice, and civil liberty were guaranteed in one voice by the founders and forefathers of this state.

After 167 years of existence, the question that seems too hard to answer in some quarters is “HAS OUR INDEPENDENCE MET ITS PROMISE?” I want to emphatically say NO! The promise of Liberia’s independence is still lingering in the wilderness of uncertainty.  After more than a century of political endurance, where is democratic inclusion – where is equality – where is economic freedom – where is Justice - where is unity – where is patriotism – where are all these good promises? The state remains at a standstill whenever self-seeking economic migrants excel to prominence. Our past and present as a nation clearly show the lack of political will to uphold and defend these fundamental promises of our independence.

The significance of preserving our sovereignty goes beyond everyone’s interest and imagination. Overtime, most citizens have lost appetite to celebrate Liberia’s birth anniversary simply because they believe that it is worthless to be happy in the midst of poverty and hardship. Independence Day is meant to revive national courage and restore broken hopes.  Independence renews good memories of economic, political, and social transformation. Independence means for everyone regardless of your status to have access to basic social services. It also means to equitably distribute national resources. Other countries around the world are eager to celebrate their independence because the promises of their independence are still in tight!

Recently, Americans happily observed their independence because the promises of America yesterday are still upheld today.  Due to the conducive political and economic environment existing in Ghana, there was a nationwide independence celebration on March 06 of this year.  I saw smiles on the faces of Ghanaians.  They had sufficient reasons to commemorate such a special day.  Their flag was high up in the sky projecting an emblem of a progressive and inclusive society.  How can Liberia boast of being 168 years old when most of its citizens are subjected to economic deprivation, marginalization, and destitution?  How can we brag of being the trendsetter of Independence in Africa, when our economy is at the verge of collapse?  Why aren’t we growing along with our age? This is a big shame to Africa’s first Independent Republic. Even though we have abundance of natural resources with a very small population, our country remains one of the poorest on earth. I refuse to accept that this sweet land of liberty is cursed!

The country’s greatest problem has been its leaders. Most politicians in Liberia careless to improve the living standard of ordinary people. They go extra mile to achieve their selfish political ambition and enrich themselves through ill-transparent practices. They lack integrity to protect the constitution which guarantees the inalienable rights of all citizens.

It is very unfortunate for our leaders today to forget the promise of self-determination. Patriots like Hilary Johnson and J. J. Roberts made sacrifices to secure the status of nationhood for Liberia.  The destiny of the oppressed majority is still imprisoned by members of the elite class. This country belongs to all Liberians; as such, divisiveness and class system must come to an end. The principle of egalitarianism is an unparalleled catalyst of national healing and reconciliation. Everyone must be given a fair chance to chart his/her own course politically, socially, and economically. Realities in the recent past and now suggest that our country has not aspired to the level of self-determination. What a promise betrayed! When our sitting President said in her first inaugural address that she looks forward to see Liberia becoming a success story of America, did the president really calculate the implications?  For me, that was an understatement. When the story is written about how America through Firestone has and continues to exploit Liberia and its people for 89 years now, I wonder what will the president say.  

The promise of Security, Peace, Equality and Freedom has been suppressed by elitists and imperialists. The society is still insecure. Without security, it is impossible to achieve economic growth and democratic sustainability. Due to poor security system, criminal rate is high on the increase. The rule of law is not taking root because some enforcers of the law are unaware about the law. The rights of impoverished citizens are mostly infringed upon by higher-ups. I thought the framers of our constitution said everyone regardless of your social status should have access to unlimited security and Justice. Regrettably, the ‘rich and powerful’ continue to enjoy maximum security and justice at the expense of ordinary peasants. With the draw-down exercise of UNMIL, our nation stands at serious security risk. I hope this government under Madam Sirleaf’s rule will mitigate this gap.

Though the objective of our founding fathers was to establish a country of peace and tranquility, but after 167 years, peace amongst Liberians is invisible. Peace cannot come when one group of people are being unfairly treated. Peace can only come when everybody has access to equal opportunities and privileges.

We fought war in this country due to dissatisfaction and discontent. We had no reason to kill each other for 15 years. Sadly, we had to thread the path of civil unrest because certain individuals felt they were more citizens than others. Certain individuals felt that the presidency was a family inheritance. As a result of this, greedy politicians took advantage of the situation by infiltrating the ignorance and gullibility of our people. 

 Today, the innocent blood of over 250,000 Liberians who were victimized by this senseless crisis is crying out for Justice. Our peace still remains fragile as the symptoms of displeasure and public discontent continue to undermine national reconciliation. Reconciliation is possible, but through sincerity, honesty, justice and transparency. We cannot be preaching reconciliation why corruption in public service is evident. We cannot be preaching peace when our hydrocarbon resources are abused. We cannot promote togetherness when our educational system is messy.  We cannot sing the song of freedom when our health sector is poor.  We cannot preach unity, when the gap of economic equality is very wide. If we are given the opportunity to freely and equally vote, we must also be given the opportunity to freely and equally share in our nation’s wealth.

We have achieved political freedom to some extent, but where is the economic freedom? Our current dilemma is more economical. Until we can fight to gain economic independence, our political situation will continue to shift downward. Liberia cannot get better when the hope and aspiration of our Independence are decaying. This country is far from getting better when our young sisters are sexually enslaved and trafficked by foreigners.  A just and equal society procreates peace and unity. The failure of politicians over the years to pledge their uncompromising loyalty and allegiance to Liberia has led to an uneven nation.

Noticeable indicators in Liberia have made most Liberians to lose taste about celebrating Liberia’s birth day. We know how they feel right now. We share in their sorrow, pain, and agony. We empathize with street children, widows, teachers, students, shoe-shine boys, wheelbarrow pushers, taxi-drivers, marketers, push-push riders, petit traders, car loaders, rock crushers, and all less-fortunate citizens who are in serious economic torment.   Don’t give up – Keep holding on! Change is on the way.

Why must Liberia be the 7th poorest country when its soil is blessed with abundant natural resources?  Liberia according to transparency international 2013 barometer report was rated as the most corrupt country along with Mongolia in the world.  Over 80% of Liberians live below the line of poverty, while 85% are unemployed. We have more than 16 billion direct foreign investments, but the living condition of our people is awkward. Why must we celebrate independence when 66 out of 68 concession agreements did not meet the minimum standard of the PPCC and PFM laws? Liberia’s inflation rate is 7.30% while import rate stands at $2.457 billion. I wonder where we stand with all these downward trends. There is nothing to celebrate because the hope of our independence is unseen in practical terms. We call on all Liberians to peacefully protest on July 26 by boycotting all national programs around the country. 168 years is enough to transform our condition. Join us to fight against nepotism, corruption, patronage, injustice, and inequality.

About The Author: Martin K. N. Kollie is a Liberian youth activist, student leader, an emerging economist, and a young writer.  He is currently a student at the University of Liberia reading Economics and a member of the Student Unification Party (SUP). He can be reached at: martinkerkula1989@yahoo.com

Samuel Garson
Well written,I support you in this cause. With 168 years of nonsense,there is nothing to celebrate on 7/26/15. Why Liberia must be the 7th poorest country? one main reason is corruption. corruption starts from ministers/managers to office boys. Our next president should be someone who is going to fight against Cancer ( corruption ). Our present leader said it, but she did otherwise. At present, there is no political parties that can stop this corruption in Liberia.
Samuel Garson at 03:19PM, 2015/07/15.
Nyekan Eboko
You account of "Liberia history is grossly inaccurate" as with many. Your failure to acknowledge the grain coast/kru coast territory which became Liberia (after the common wealth of Liberia) is why we Liberians are fundamentally lost as we don't know where we coming from therefore cannot know where we want to go. You might want to also research the charter signed by both France and Britain giving the free slaves use of the land as requested by America for the ACL in short the natives/indigenous were chattel in the charter. Going forward I do get your point of your commentary. And would like to add if I might we need not to protest the 26th but rather question its validity in terms of who did we become independent from? Is it not more accurate to have a Republic day if its the 26th the common wealth became a Republic? As when one declares independence that means one was formally not independent and there lies our dilemma (who did we gain independence from). Likewise we will never get anywhere collectively when the country's motto is an apartheid mantra "Love of Liberty brought us here" whereas it met my forefathers and foremothers of the kru coast holding ground!!!

Good point again but you need to do more research and expand the dialogue to strengthen the case you want to make.
Nyekan Eboko at 04:59PM, 2015/07/15.
sylvester krah
My profound thanks and gratitude to one of Liberia's prolific writers comrade martin kollie for such a heart touching and reality narrative article.

Iam very disappointed in one of the readers above(nyean eboko)who said that martin account of the Liberian history is grossly inaccurate. By a writer not using your specific choice of words does not in any way suggest his writings to inaccuracy.

Well eboko inability to clearly state those major contradiction has render his argument irrelevant.

This is where i have serious problem with the young folks, our inability to read a significant document meticulously and identified the substance but always after trivial points so as to denigrate and discredit the hard working efforts of credible personalities.

we are awaiting for eboko two paragraphs of accurate Liberian history.

The core of comrade martin discussion is not about the accuracy of Liberia history but rather the inability of our leaders to constitutionally perform over the periods.

I tend to strongly agree with my bro because the major problem of our nation has always been associated with the kind of leadership we have.

Until our leaders can stop being self seekers this nation will have nothing to show on every independence day.
Until government can identified the appropriate economic proprieties there will be no substantive investment in human development and infrastructures.

Until government can transcend the attitude of making mere boost of huge budgetary figures and concentrate on the economic realities of its people we will have no reason of celebrating independence.

Independence day must provide national government the opportunity to count on its progress over the periods. so what will this government recount?

Peaceful protest is a constitutional requirement.

I sincerely support the concept of a peaceful protest because this will help to translate or showcase our high level of dissatisfaction of our national leaders to the world.

can you imagine with the all of the abundance resources our nation is bless with, yet Liberia is consistently leading the group of countries with very poor economic status.
I hope government is taking note to act decisively.

SYLVESTER N. KRAH





































































































































































































































































































































































































































let me quickly extend my profound thanks to my distinguish and prolific writer matin









sylvester krah at 06:53AM, 2015/07/16.
Nyekan Eboko
Mr Krah

I'm not the one writing hence I pointed out 2 issues namely Martin not making mention of the grain coast/kru coast or the charter signed by France and Britian. Do you want me to write for him likewise the significance of both greatly influence his argument or case. That said I fully comprehend his point and only suggest more research to expand the narrative so to say.
Nyekan Eboko at 02:34AM, 2015/07/18.
CK

1. Only a few of the Tribes welcomed the settlers with "olive branches".

2. At independence the country "Liberia" was limited to the Americo-Liberian settlements on the coast because they were socially and culturally "connected". Likewise the indigenous people remained in their various traditional tribal communities for the same reason. Wide spread assimilation did not take place until the Liberian Government decided to claim tribal territories as a protectorate due to European colonial expansion. Assimilation was difficult due to political/cultural differences and economic constraints. Merging several large tribes into one small foreign and unfamiliar society is not an easy task.

3. The Kru were in league with Europeans and fought to maintain slave trading.
"In the region which is now called Liberia the (slave) trade thus contributed to the impoverishment of and the hostilities between tribes. Up till the present day the inter-tribal relations are affected by the events of this period. The Golas, Krus, Kpelles and Kissis were notorious slave traders conniving with unscrupulous Europeans who looted the coastal areas. Besides this, the northern tribes of the Mano and the Gio were feared because of their cannibalism, a practice which was also not uncommon among the Greboes and the Krus." - http://www.liberiapastandpresent.org/Peppercoastbefore1822.htm

4. "The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here" is simply a tribute to the historic and unique nature of the Nation's genesis. The U.S. motto is "In God (Christian God) we Trust" but the American people are a diverse mixture of religions and cultures. It is simply a tribute to the founders of the nation who were all Christian men.

CK at 10:28AM, 2015/07/20.
Nyekan Eboko
Dear CK,
Before the free slaves ever reached the shores of west africa the Frnch and British were well established and West Africa had been documented prior by Portuguese and Dutch sailors giving different points there names "Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, Grain Coast, Kru Coast etc". By not acknowledging the Charter signed by the free slaves with the French and British under the ACS which was backed by America. We continually fail to acknowledge the people of the land were considered chattel as stated in writing. Therefore the love of liberty was solely a mantra as they knew the British and French still had slavery going and were in fact telling them you are responsible for those native and we will not get involved with them as ACS was to have no slavery as requested by America. Kru and numerous other tribes were slave trader no doubt as they werw all part of the Mali empire by mentioning this fact we then know that Bassa people who governed the Grain Coast would have never sold land for smoke fish.

Genesis of Liberia's or people of the Grain/Kru coast problems is and will continue to be most start their history with the coming of the free slaves and their supposed accounts when there are records from French, British, Portugal, Dutch and of course Islamic scholars who have a completely different account.
Nyekan Eboko at 06:18AM, 2015/07/21.
CK
NYEKAN EBOKO

A distinction needs to be made between the history of Liberia (the nation state) and pre Liberia history. One history does not take away from the other. The history of Liberia (the nation state) starts with the founding of the country by the settlers and it was their responsibility to document all accounts for posterity. Likewise it was and still is the responsibility of the people of each ethnic group to document their own histories. If either group(s) did or do not keep a record of their history who is to blame?
CK at 07:43AM, 2015/07/22.
Nyekan Eboko
CK,
So you believe the free slaves bought land for smoke fish? The Grain Coast was ruled by the Bassa with all tribes under that territory their subjects similar to Gold Coast and Ashanti. If we go by your take then Christopher Columbus found America even though there were native Americans living there with a thriving society (today they are actively working to correct the lies themselves). The genesis of my point is Liberia was setup as an apartheid government from the beginning and never for all hence "love 9f Liberty brought us here" the nation motto/mantra says it all the issus of independence then becomes who did they gain independence from and would Republic day not be better title for the 26th?

Nyekan Eboko at 12:50AM, 2015/07/23.
CK

Wow...

What do the history books and records of the people who sold the land say about it being sold for smoke fish? This is a form of exchange called bartering and its been done for thousands of years.

Please name the history book that says the Americo-Liberians discovered the land that would become Liberia.

Independence was gained from the ACS, the organization that governed the colony. You can gain independence from more than just a country you know...

Sorry but if you have no understand of what "apartheid" is then this discussion is useless.
CK at 09:37AM, 2015/07/23.
CK
Too many of you have bought into the White Supremacist propaganda that intends to paint Africa's first independent Republic as a failure. There is a reason why both Haiti and Liberia and failed States today. Aside from being failed states ask yourself what else these nations have in common. As they say in Liberia "Shine your eyes!"
CK at 09:57AM, 2015/07/23.
Nyekan Eboko
CK,
Please give an example of another country that gain independence from an organisation like ACS? Likewise African culture course at most University will enlightened you and dispel the notion Bassa would have sold their land or batered it for smoke fish when they already knew how to preserve fish at the time the freed slaves arrived and more importantly at the time of the freed slaves arrival land was only acquired 2 ways acts of war or through marriage.

Africa oldest Republic does a good enough job of discrediting itself without white supremists. If one doesn't know what apartheid is by definition then its understood why one would deny Liberia was an apartheid state by definition.

Origin of word apartheid and definition are 2 different things. When going by definition Liberia was an apartheid Republic until the coup. Once upon the time indigenous/natives couldn't own land and not allowed to vote without proof of land ownership? System of government where majority govern the minority through a system is basic definition of apartheid. Now TWP Liberia and Love of Liberty brought us here nonsense was just that!

Its legacy and our refusal to acknowledge and deal with this fact head on will continue to hold us back as people and nation 160 plus years going!
Nyekan Eboko at 04:57AM, 2015/07/24.
CK

1. I'm trying to figure out if your ignorance intentional? What don't you understand about the meaning of the word independence?

Webster's dictionary defines Independence as :
1. freedom from outside control or support
2. the state of being independent
3. the time when a country or region gains political freedom from outside control

When Liberia declared itself independent did it not free itself from outside control?

2. If the natives were selling people via bartering with the Europeans why would they not be inclined to sell land?

3. Apartheid is apartheid just like slavery is slavery. The fact that you are attempting to make a distinction speaks volumes. If Liberia was a so called "apartheid" state up until the 1980 coup why was universal suffrage granted in the 1940s? How is it a Native served as Vice President under President King in the 1920s? How was Jackson Doe able to become Senior Senator of Nimba county in the 1970s? Under an apartheid system none of these things would have been possible, so again, you clearly don't understand what apartheid means.

4. Once upon a time in Liberia NO ONE could vote unless they owned land. This was also the same in the United States during its infancy. There were natives who owned land and could vote if they had assimilated into the modern society. Poor Americo-Liberians could not vote unless they owned land and women could not vote period. The laws were first amended to allow all men participating in the modern society to vote. Then in the 1940s suffrage was granted to women and natives (those who were not participating in the modern society). Universal Suffrage in Liberia was granted faster than it was in the United States.

5. The only thing holding Liberia back is people who have your mindset. People who refuse to evolve beyond simplistic ways of thinking. People who have clearly been brainwashed and are perpetuating the White Supremacist movement's agenda. This agenda seeks the demoralization and degradation of all black people and their historic contributions to man kind, which includes Liberia. The fact that you can state; "Africa oldest Republic does a good enough job of discrediting itself without white supremists", provides a clear indication of which team you are playing for.


Nyekan Eboko wrote:
CK,
Please give an example of another country that gain independence from an organisation like ACS? Likewise African culture course at most University will enlightened you and dispel the notion Bassa would have sold their land or batered it for smoke fish when they already knew how to preserve fish at the time the freed slaves arrived and more importantly at the time of the freed slaves arrival land was only acquired 2 ways acts of war or through marriage.

Africa oldest Republic does a good enough job of discrediting itself without white supremists. If one doesn't know what apartheid is by definition then its understood why one would deny Liberia was an apartheid state by definition.

Origin of word apartheid and definition are 2 different things. When going by definition Liberia was an apartheid Republic until the coup. Once upon the time indigenous/natives couldn't own land and not allowed to vote without proof of land ownership? System of government where majority govern the minority through a system is basic definition of apartheid. Now TWP Liberia and Love of Liberty brought us here nonsense was just that!

Its legacy and our refusal to acknowledge and deal with this fact head on will continue to hold us back as people and nation 160 plus years going!

CK at 06:51AM, 2015/07/24.
CK
U.S. Voting Rights Timeline
http://www.kqed.org/assets/pdf/education/digitalmedia/us-voting-rights-timeline.pdf

1776 Only people who own land can vote
Declaration of Independence signed. Right to vote during the Colonial and Revolutionary periods is restricted to property owners—most of whom are white male Protestants over the age of 21.

1787 No federal voting standard—states decide who can vote U.S. Constitution adopted. Because there is no agreement on a national standard for voting rights, states are given the power to regulate their own voting laws. In most cases, voting remains in the hands of white male landowners.

1789 George Washington elected president. Only 6% of the population can vote.

1790 Citizen=White

1790 Naturalization Law passed. It explicitly states that only “free white” immigrants can become naturalized citizens.

1848 Activists for ending slavery and women’s rights join together Women’s rights convention held in Seneca Falls, NY. Frederick Douglass, a newspaper editor and former slave, attends the event and gives a speech supporting universal voting rights. His speech helps convince the convention to adopt a resolution calling for voting rights for women.

1848 Citizenship granted, but voting denied
The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War and guarantees U.S. citizenship to Mexicans living in the territories conquered by the U.S. However, English language requirements and violent intimidation limit access to voting rights.

1856 Vote expanded to all white men North Carolina is the last state to remove property ownership as a requirement to
vote.

1866 Movements unite and divide
Two women’s rights activists, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, form an organization for white and black women and men dedicated to the goal of universal voting rights. The organization later divides and regroups over disagreements in strategies to gain the vote for women and African Americans.

1868 Former slaves granted citizenship
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution passed. Citizenship is defined and granted to former slaves. Voters, however, are explicitly defined as male.
CK at 07:30AM, 2015/07/24.
Nyekan Eboko
CK,
You never answered the question name a country who gained independence from an organisation such as ACS plain and simple. Attempting to blame white supremist is comical. Collectively we blacks deny we were selling ourselves into slavery hence we deny the chronological accounts of our people and rather run with colonial fables of bassa selling land the most prised possession in all of Africa which was only acquired by acts of war or marriage. British and French never fought ti establish colonies in Africa rather they negotiated with the dominating tribal authority from trading of weaker tribes into slavery and establishment of various posts etc required to maintain the trade there were in fact very few wars between them and tribes for control as the tribes already had hierarchy and this was easily manipulated in the favor of those who complied with their aim.

When it comes to your gained independence fable again facts are there America was not the first to recognise the so called independence for a reason however you want to blame white supremist or basically keep the fable going is telling. Similar to the Mathilda Newport fable I'm sure you believe she was real and in celebration of her day?

Taking personal a simple discussion in a forum of public opinion is rather trivial.

In any apartheid government there arw always colloborators from the arrival of the freed slaves till 1980 they always had natives who were used for the frontier force, Senator, etc. These token gestures do not change the fact there was a design system for only them/minority to govern the majority?

And you talking about universal suffrage in 1940 then you should know wbat year President King was selling Liberian of native stock?
Nyekan Eboko at 03:52PM, 2015/07/24.
CK
I have explained everything clearly and provided solid reference material, something you have chosen not to do. You are now rambling and attempting to take this conversation in circles. A confused mind and convoluted mentality are symptoms of brainwashing. A wise man once said "Never let someone bring you down to their level.." so I bid you farewell and hope you will one day be able to make peace with yourself and the Creator when you finally come to realize the error of your ways.

Nyekan Eboko wrote:
CK,
You never answered the question name a country who gained independence from an organisation such as ACS plain and simple. Attempting to blame white supremist is comical. Collectively we blacks deny we were selling ourselves into slavery hence we deny the chronological accounts of our people and rather run with colonial fables of bassa selling land the most prised possession in all of Africa which was only acquired by acts of war or marriage. British and French never fought ti establish colonies in Africa rather they negotiated with the dominating tribal authority from trading of weaker tribes into slavery and establishment of various posts etc required to maintain the trade there were in fact very few wars between them and tribes for control as the tribes already had hierarchy and this was easily manipulated in the favor of those who complied with their aim.

When it comes to your gained independence fable again facts are there America was not the first to recognise the so called independence for a reason however you want to blame white supremist or basically keep the fable going is telling. Similar to the Mathilda Newport fable I'm sure you believe she was real and in celebration of her day?

Taking personal a simple discussion in a forum of public opinion is rather trivial.

In any apartheid government there arw always colloborators from the arrival of the freed slaves till 1980 they always had natives who were used for the frontier force, Senator, etc. These token gestures do not change the fact there was a design system for only them/minority to govern the majority?

And you talking about universal suffrage in 1940 then you should know wbat year President King was selling Liberian of native stock?


CK at 10:53PM, 2015/07/24.
CK
An FYI so those seeking to be educated aren't misinformed by your falsification regarding European Colonial conquest and strategy. http://www.countriesquest.com/africa/ghana/history/the_british-ashanti_wars.htm

History, The British-Ashanti Wars

The majority of the Gold Coast’s fortresses were under British control by the early 19th century. Seeking a peaceful environment in which to conduct trade for raw materials, Britain viewed Ashanti efforts to assert dominance as a threat to Britain’s commercial interests and began to intervene in local conflicts. The Ashanti, on the other hand, saw British interference in its conquered territories as infringement on its sovereignty and fought back. During a confrontation in 1824, the Ashanti army routed a British force and killed its commander, Charles MacCarthy, the colonial governor of Sierra Leone. In 1826 the Ashanti launched an offensive against British coastal positions. They suffered high casualties and were turned back by an alliance of British and Danish troops in a fierce battle on the plains near Accra. The Ashanti signed a peace treaty with Britain in 1831. The subsequent peace coincided with a period of increased European Christian missionary work in the region.

In 1844 the British signed a political agreement with a confederation of Fante states. Known as the Bond of 1844, the agreement extended British protection to the signatory states and gave Britain a degree of authority over them. In subsequent years, additional coastal and interior states signed the Bond. Britain bought all of Denmark’s Gold Coast territory in 1850 and purchased the Dutch fort at Elmina in 1872.

The systematic consolidation of British power on the coast alarmed Ashanti leaders. With the 1872 purchase, the British became the only European power left on the Gold Coast. The Ashanti, who for years had enjoyed friendly relations with the Dutch, lost an important pathway to the coast. Ashanti forces surrounded the British territory and then invaded in 1873. After initial successes, the Ashanti were forced to retreat. An attempt to negotiate a peaceful conclusion was rejected by the British commander, Sir Garnet Wolseley. In January 1874 a large expeditionary force led by Wolseley fought its way into Ashanti territory, capturing Kumasi and then burning the Ashanti capital to the ground.

In a treaty that ended the war, the Ashanti recognized British sovereignty over the coast, agreed to pay war reparation costs, and renounced influence over all the territories under British protection. In return, the British permitted the Ashanti commercial access to the coast. In July 1874 the British proclaimed the coastal territories as the Gold Coast Colony and moved their administrative center from Cape Coast to Accra. In the subsequent years, internal dissention made it impossible for Ashanti to control subject territories. In 1896 Britain attacked and occupied Ashanti, declaring it a British protectorate. The asantehene and several Ashanti elders were taken prisoner and exiled to the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. In 1899 British forces occupied the Northern Territories, the high plains region north of Ashanti. A final Ashanti rebellion against the British occurred in 1900. Under the command of Yaa Asantewa, queen mother of the Ashanti state of Ejusu, the Ashanti demanded the return of their exiled leaders. The rebellion was put down in 1901, and Ashanti was proclaimed a British colony. In 1902 Ashanti and the Northern Territories were annexed to the Gold Coast Colony. Thus, Britain became the sole power in the political and economic affairs of what is now Ghana.
CK at 05:08AM, 2015/07/25.
CK
Touré, Samori (1830-1900)

Warrior king, empire builder and hero of the resistance against the French colonization of West Africa during the 19th century, Samori Touré was born around 1830 in the Milo River Valley in present-day Guinea. His father was a trader, leading Touré to follow his family’s occupation early on. In the 1850s, he enrolled in the military forces at Madina (present-day Mali) to liberate his mother, who was a member of the Malinké ethnic group, captured during a raid. He subsequently acquired military skills during various campaigns he undertook for local chiefs before starting his own career.

Touré became a well-known leader, training and commanding a growing and disciplined army. He expanded his conquests, building a united empire called Mandinka. By 1874, he declared himself Faama (monarch), and established the capital of his kingdom at Bisandugu in present-day Gambia. *In the 1880s, the empire expanded from Bamako, Mali, in the north, to the frontiers of British Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast, and Liberia in the east and south. The Sudan was the eastward frontier. Touré’s empire reached its apogee between 1883 and 1887, a period in which he took the title of Almami, meaning the religious head of a Muslim empire.

After the 1884 Berlin Conference which partitioned Africa, French forces began encroaching on Mandinka. Although his army initially defeated the French, between 1885 and 1889 their military forces, which often included Senegalese troops, succeeded in pushing him further into the West African interior. After several confrontations, Touré in 1889 concluded various peace treaties with the French forces.

In December 1891, increasing French incursions into Touré’s empire led to the exodus of the entire nation eastward. Between 1893 and 1898, Touré's Army conquered vast territories in present day Northern Ivory Coast. Toure formed a second empire and established its new capital in the city of Kong, Upper Ivory Coast.

On May 1, 1898, when the French seized the town of Sikasso, just north of the new empire, Touré and his army took up positions in the Liberian forests to resist a second invasion. This time, however, famine and desertion weakened his forces and the French seized Touré on September 29, 1898, in his camp at Guélémou in present-day Ivory Coast. Touré was exiled to Ndjolé, Gabon, where he died of pneumonia on June 2, 1900.

- See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/gah/toure-samori-1830-1900#sthash.joT7U2DR.dpuf

*Natives (in what would eventually become Liberia) were still under the rule of monarchs and tribal leaders (also known as minority rule) when the country was founded and limited to the coast.
CK at 01:25AM, 2015/07/26.
Nyekan Eboko
CK,
You only just proved my point and blackpast is not best resource for facts as lots is left off and anyone can edit. Empire was a lot bigger and encompass lot more territory than stated. But yes there was a hierarchy as I stated who dealt with the colony power as I also previously stated to gain advantage over the masses they already ruled and sold into slavery. These facts do not justify the free slaves setting up what amounted to an apartheid in "Liberia" nor does declaring independence mean you were under a colony which is topic that started oir exchange.

26th in my humble opinion to end this exchange should rather be Republic day unless again you can show me where else in the chronological accounts/war and peace of this world we live in did an organisation like ACS be used for justification of independence.
Nyekan Eboko at 02:33AM, 2015/07/26.
CK
You are still in denial and have no clue what you are talking about.

The definitions of independence and apartheid are clear. You on the other hand are attempting to change the definitions and manipulate the meanings to fit a false narrative.

As I stated previously, I hope you can one day make peace with yourself and the Creator when you finally wake up to the realization of what you have been doing. All the best to you.

Nyekan Eboko wrote:
CK,
You only just proved my point and blackpast is not best resource for facts as lots is left off and anyone can edit. Empire was a lot bigger and encompass lot more territory than stated. But yes there was a hierarchy as I stated who dealt with the colony power as I also previously stated to gain advantage over the masses they already ruled and sold into slavery. These facts do not justify the free slaves setting up what amounted to an apartheid in "Liberia" nor does declaring independence mean you were under a colony which is topic that started oir exchange.

26th in my humble opinion to end this exchange should rather be Republic day unless again you can show me where else in the chronological accounts/war and peace of this world we live in did an organisation like ACS be used for justification of independence.


CK at 05:52AM, 2015/07/26.
Yini Guva A. Sahn
I don't believe that Nimbaians ate each other for any reasons. Foods have always been abundant in Nimba according to history. My parents mentioned a period of famine which made them to move to neighboring towns. They said there was no food and the so-called Kwii were also fighting them. It took about seven years. They ate tree barks, palm cabbage and all kinds of leaves to remain alive. They never ate each other during these tough times.

Nimba people are so scare of dead bodies that they bury their dead far off from their towns and villages. Because Dr. Harley who established Ganta Mission didn't see many graves, he wrote in his book that we ate our dead in Nimba. That's not true. I asked two former and late superintendents of Nimba about this. They were highly educated too. Hon. Dwanyen and Gabriel G. Farngalo laughed it out when I asked them about the existence of cannibalism in Nimba. They said these people were so scare to come to Africa because of what they heard. So they wrote about whatever they heard but didn't see. Our people are hunters, farmers and hard workers. Some people in Nimba don't even eat monkeys or gorillas because of their semblance to human beings. Where are these guys getting their information from?
Yini Guva A. Sahn at 06:35AM, 2015/12/10.

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