President Sirleaf's Rejection to The “Christian State” Proposal: Good or Bad for Liberia?

By Josephus M. Gray

The Perspective
Atlanta, Georgia
August 25, 2015



Although secularism is proceeding rapidly in the Liberian society, nevertheless religion continues to be an important political phenomenon in the body politics of the nation, for multiple reasons. Some religious groups in Liberia especially the followers of the Prophet Muhammad see the move to constitutionalize Christianity as a direct threat to their faith and alienate them, arguing that the move implies their exclusion. They argue further that it is unfair for their religious beliefs, while on the other hand the well-organized Christian conformists, both leaders and their supporters who are seeking to “baptize” Liberia, are politically stronger, more energized this time, and better determined than ever before in achieving their objective to baptize the nation into Christianity through a referendum for a “Yes” vote.

This article, among other, presents a well distinct analysis of President Ellen Jonson-Sirleaf’s rejection to the proposition to amend the constitution of Liberia to Christianize the State, and at the same time to remind the people of Liberia that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. There are pressing important elements that the nation need to focus on in order to move forward and offer better opportunities for the survival of all Liberians, and not create pointless conditions that have the potential to create another conflict. Liberians are exhausted of conflict, the issue of religious or beliefs should not drag this nation into another crisis.

The presidential rejection to the proposition calling for the amendment of the constitution to baptize Liberia into Christianity is laudable and in the spirit of equal protection before the constitution of Liberia. As one of thousands of Liberians who is against the Christianization of Liberia sees the president’s rejection as a relief of a potential religious crisis from the country especially between the two most recognized religion institutions in the country, the Christians-followed of Jesus Christ  and Muslins-followed of the Prophet Muhammad.

Now the President position is cleared, the decision now rest with the entire Members of the National Legislature to either make the Christian state proposition part of the constitution amendment for the pending referendum or to have it removed since the honorable men and women are the direct representatives of the people; laws are mad for the greater good of the people and not to the advantage of others.

Let us be aware of the global consequences since Liberia is a signatory to the United Nations 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, most importantly to avoid being shamed by the global powers, especially the United States of America, and international bodies which have labeled the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as the most dangerous nation on earth in terms of religious ideology. If the Christian Nation proposition is successful passed and adopted through referendum, Liberia will be the second, next to Libya, to be constitutionally religiously.

About 6pm on Thursday, August 20, 2015, before going to class, I decided to take up at least twenty-minute of my time busy schedule in the living room of my Paris’s apartment to browse the various internet sites especially the ones that carried unfolding development on Liberia in a bid to be fully conscious of happenings back home since I am about five thousand miles away from Liberia in the French capital Paris. The various internet sites of the local media houses in Liberia highlighted President Johnson-Sirleaf’s rejection to Christianize the country. These wires quoted the president as saying that she is against the proposition because it has the potential to divide the people of Liberia who have been living together in peace and harmony and it also contradicts the constitution. And let me use this medium to applaud the Liberian media that in the face of daunting challenges the media continue to keep those of us in the Diaspora clued-up with unfolding development in Liberia.

            "I do not concur with this views of those who wants to make Liberia to be constitutionally religiously. Liberia was established on a foundation of Christianity, nevertheless the founders of the republic did not then put into the constitution a declaration of Christianity as a religions of the nation," the communication quotes President Sirleaf. According to her, the constitution of the country has always allowed freedom of religions and freedom of worship so as to avoid seeking to prescribe one religions as official state religion, and stressed "to make the country a Christian state now will only create what she called division among the people of the country who have been living together for a very long time now despite on religious belief  

Taking a deep sense from Madam Sirleaf’s rejection, let me remind the good people of Liberia that what the country needs now is sincerity and patriotism as well as the creation and implementations of good laws. For instance, if the nation was to decide to replace the Constitution with the Holy Bible, will such move improved the livelihoods of impoverished population, sustained peace, create jobs, exterminate corruption, put food on the table for vulnerable population or create equal opportunities under the current political situation in the country? My answer is no, because there are several pressing other critical issues that served as barriers in the way of dignity and self-esteems for the greater population; until these grim issues can be resolved, no amendment of the constitution to baptize Liberia into Christian state can bring dignity to the greater population of the land.

 No doubt, the brains behind the Christian State concept are fully aware of the country’s main problems. It is not wrong to amend the constitution but such move should not give due advantage to one segment of the entire 3.5 million population over the others. Any amendment of the constitution to give the Christians any advantage over the other religious or beliefs will indicates that the country momentous problem is religious, which is far from the reality.  As a true Christian and a member of the Roman Catholic Church, let me reiterates that I am again such amendment of the constitution; the entire population should not be restricted to one religious or beliefs, there freedom of religious should be sustained, religious secularism must be protected.

Article 91 of the Liberian Constitution states that constitutional amendments may be proposed by either a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Legislature, or by a petition signed by at least 10,000 registered voters and approved by a two-thirds vote in the Legislature. A proposed amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of voters in a popular referendum held no sooner than one year after its approval by the Legislature.

Hoping that our people especially the so-called educated class are fully aware that the United Nations recognized the importance of freedom of religion or belief in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in which Article 18 states that “Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have a religion or whatever belief of his choice.” Since the Universal Declaration, the attempt to develop an enforceable human rights instrument related to freedom of religion and belief has been unsuccessful  to a largest extend, with some countries being labeled as dangerous nation on earth in terms of religious ideology.

I wondered if the Christianization of Liberia is the solution to the nation’s copious problems such as abject poverty, massive unemployment, rampant corruption, abuse of state resources, pitiable health and education systems, just to mention few of our peculiar problems. Perhaps the best way to end this analysis is by bringing us back to first principles. What is the state and what is the Church? Once we come to a biblical understanding of these two institutions and what their purposes are, we will have no problem seeing the absurdity of declaring Liberia a Christian nation and enshrining it in the constitution.

The intent of this article is not to pass a verdict, instead to provide an in-depth analysis of the potential clashes of constitutional and fundamental rights under the 1984 Liberian constitution and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and how well can we as people of Liberia soberly reflect on President Johnson-Sirleaf decision to openly reject the Christianization of Liberia. While at the same time this article deals with the ongoing debate concerning the “Christian nation” concept. First, this article just like the previous ones published looks at the historical background and then examines the Christian nation” project itself, with a particular emphasis on the amendment of certain provisions and articles in the 1984 Constitution.

The on-going debate over the “Christian Nation” project to have Liberia baptized into Christianity has been a major societal and cultural problem that first emerged as an issue in our nation over two decades ago. However, in the 1990’s and 2000’s following the end of the devastated war, the Christianization of the nation became the new national issue we still see today between two opposing ideologies, grouped into sides coined as pro-favors and pro-against. It is these struggles over whose deep rooted morals and beliefs of our society that makes the “Christian Nation” project a serious controversial and divisive one.

First, it is important to understand the pro-favors and pro-against side on the debate to baptize the entire nation religiously into Christianity. The Christians-Muslims battle was already well under way during years back in the 1980s, and it has continued unabated ever since. Despite constitutional provision which makes the country a secular state for more than twenty-eight years of national history, the appropriate role of Christianity in a religiously pluralistic Liberia has never been fully resolved.

But today’s battles between the two popular religions in Liberia, a nation founded by its founding fathers on “Christian’s principles,” are much more turbulent than in the past, and may degenerate further, possibly into bedlam, if amicable solution is not proffer. The well-organized Christian conformists, both leaders and their supporters who are seeking to “baptize” Liberia, are politically stronger, more energized this time, and better determined than ever before in achieving their objective to baptize the nation into Christianity through a referendum for a “Yes” vote.

It is these struggles over whose deep rooted morals and beliefs of our society that makes the “Christian Nation” project a serious controversial and divisive one. The basis for a well-structured acceptable religious policy best suited for Liberia can be amended in the constitution. While it may seem that baptizing Liberia has always been an critical issue in our nation, it really only became serious this time due to what many die-hard Christians and their followers believe is a curse from the Almighty God on the nation due to its evil and sinful acts.

The followers of Christ adherents firmly believe that “the Republic of Liberia was established on Christian principles by Christian people, with the sighing of the Declaration of Independence in the old edifice of Providence Baptized Church on Center and Broad Streets in Monrovia, with Christianity assigned as a central place in guiding the nation’s destiny.” They reiterated that since the Republic has lost its moral identity as shaped by its founders, they think re-creating a “Christian Liberia” is the only solution to the country’s acute problems. The idea of constitutional rights is one of the most powerful tools to advance justice for every citizen of a country and not to alienate or exclude another grouping.

Although secularism is proceeding rapidly in the Liberian society, nevertheless religion continues to be an important political phenomenon in the body politics of the nation, for multiple reasons. Some religious groups in Liberia see the move to constitutionalize Christianity as a direct threat to their faith and alienate them, arguing that the move implies their exclusion. They argue further that it is unfair for their religious beliefs.

An advocate of Religious Rights, Rt. Rev. Joshua Z. K. Tokpah told me during my last April visit in Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota, that the 1984 Constitution in its preamble recognize God by its reading that “We the People of the Republic of Liberia: Acknowledging our devout gratitude to God for our existence as a Free, Sovereign and Independent State, and relying on His Divine Guidance for our survival as a Nation”. He argued that while the preamble did not mention Christ, he said the word “His Divine” means Jesus Christ, as such; the nation needs to be baptized into Christianity. He said the Constitution was designed to perpetuate Christian order and values.

A Liberian Journalist, Moses Zangar, Jr. argues that “A nation is not Christian by declaration, but by deeds. Making Liberia a Christian nation promotes an attitude of indifference to others who are not Christians and could lead to religious persecution. I think we should declare Liberia a religious nation where people are free to choose what they want to worship, rather than limit their freedom of choice. God does not force people to become Christians. People become Christians through the conviction of the spirit of God and by beholding good character reflected by Christians, and not by legislation.”
But in support of Rev. Tokpah’s argument, another Liberian, Amos Hunter, told me via telephone that “Liberia is a nation based on biblical principles, stressing that Liberia’s establishment was based on Christian principles, saying that Christian values dominate our government, institutions and system.

He said while the Constitution acknowledges the secular nature of the State, it does not make any reference to Christianity, therefore such an amendment would be the nationally acceptable thing to do to bring the country closer to Christ. The advocates of the Christian nation project use a stream of selective biblical quotes to buttress their positions on a myriad of issues, but the Muslim group remains diametrically opposed to constitutionalizing Christianity. Minority religious groups have spoken against the proposition, saying such move is unfair and would give undue advantage to one religion over and against another

Amendments of a particular law by two-thirds of voters in a popular referendum, I believed is to either amend or remove laws in the constitution that are inimical to present days reality, and replace same with the ones that stand to improve the livelihoods of the people and protect the fundamental rights of all without violating the rights of a particular group. The state (or national government) is there primarily to protect the vulnerable by regulating relationships and punishing offenders beyond the immediate context of the family (domestic government). If it were not for the fact that families have to co-exist in a sinful world there would be no need for national government, each home would merely look after its affairs.

The Church on the other hand is redemptive. Its work is that of bringing people into the right relationship with God. It needs to be very defined as to its belief systems because it is not about protection primarily but about taking people somewhere—to God; who that God is, what He wants from us, and what He plans to do for us and to us, is what religion is all about. Concerning those matters, the Church will want to be very definite.

Let us be aware of the global consequences since Liberia is a signatory to the United Nations 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, most importantly to avoid being shamed by the global powers, especially the United States of America, and international bodies which have labeled the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as the most dangerous nation on earth in terms of religious ideology. If the Christian Nation proposition is successful passed and adopted through referendum which is democratic process, Liberia will be the second, next to Libya, to be constitutionally religiously.

A new Pew Research analysis finds that 30 of the world’s countries (15%) belong to a unique group of nations that call for their heads of state to have a particular religious affiliation. From monarchies to republics, candidates in these countries must belong to a specific religious group. More than half of the countries with religion-related restrictions on their heads of state (17) maintain that the office must be held by a Muslim.

In Jordan, for example, the heir to the throne must be a Muslim child of Muslim parents. In Tunisia, any Muslim male or female voter born in the country may qualify as a candidate for president. Malaysia, Pakistan and Mauritania also restrict their heads of state to Muslim citizens. Two countries, Lebanon and Andorra, require their heads of state to have a Christian affiliation. Lebanon also has a religious requirement of its prime minister, who must be a Sunni Muslim.

Two other countries require the heads of their monarchies to be Buddhist: Bhutan and Thailand. And one country, Indonesia, requires the official state belief in Pancasila to be upheld by its head of state. Indonesia is a Muslim-majority country. A handful of countries do not require a particular religious affiliation for heads of state, but do limit candidates for the office to laypersons. Eight countries, including Bolivia, Mexico and El Salvador, specifically prohibit clergy from running in presidential elections. In Burma (Myanmar), the president is prohibited from being a member of a religious order.

According to information gathered from several publications, in addition to the 30 countries, another 19 nations have religious requirements for ceremonial monarchs who serve as their heads of state. Sixteen of these, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, are members of the Commonwealth of Nations with Queen Elizabeth II – also known as the Defender of the Faith – as their head of state. The other countries in this category are Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Study shows that in most of the world’s countries, about eighty-five percent allow citizens of any religious affiliation to be head of state. In the United States, for example, the Constitution specifically prohibits any kind of “religious test” as a qualification for holding federal or state public office.

According to a historian, Brian Pellot and author John, the worst countries for religious freedom include Burma where 90 percent of its population is Theravada Buddhist, a faith the government embraces and promotes over Christianity, Islam and Hinduism. Minority groups that adhere to these and other faiths are denied building permits, banned from proselytizing and pressured to convert to the majority faith. Religious groups must register with the government, and Burmese citizens must list their faith on official documents.

In China the ruling Chinese Communist Party is officially an atheist organization. China’s constitution provides for freedom of religious belief, but the government actively restricts any religious expression that could potentially undermine its authority. Only five religious groups — Buddhists, Taoists, Muslims, Catholics and Protestants — can register with the government and legally hold services. Adherents of unregistered faiths and folk religions often worship illegally and in secret. Uighur Muslims, Tibetan Buddhists and Falun Gong practitioners have faced particularly severe repression in recent years, including forced conversion, torture and imprisonment.
For Eritrea, the government only recognizes four religious groups: the Eritrean Orthodox Church, Sunni Islam, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Eritrea.

These groups enjoy limited religious freedom while adherents of other faiths face harassment and imprisonment. Religious persecution in Eritrea is generally driven by government rather than social concerns. Jehovah’s Witnesses and other conscientious objectors who refuse to enroll in compulsory military training are subject to physical abuse, detention and hard labour.

In the case of Iran, its constitution offers some religious freedom rights for recognized sects of Islam along with Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians. Baha’is, who the government considers apostates and labelled as “political sect,” are excluded from these limited protections and are systematically discriminated against through gozinesh provisions, which limit their access to employment, education and housing.

Evangelical Christians and other faith groups face persecution for violating bans on proselytizing. Religious minorities have been charged in recent years and imprisoned in harsh conditions for committing “enmity against God” and spreading “anti-Islamic propaganda.” Also North Korea’s constitution guarantees religious freedom, but this right is far from being upheld. The state is officially atheist.

The government considers established religious traditions a threat to state unity and control. North Korea allow for government-sponsored Christian and Buddhist religious organizations to operate and build houses of worship, but political analysts suspect this “concession” is for the sake of external propaganda. Christians found with Bibles in North Korea face imprisonment, torture or even death.

Author John Sweeney argued that of all, the most dangerous is Saudi Arabia; its constitution is not a standalone document. In Saudi, it is illegal to publicly practice any faith other than the state’s official religion Sunni Islam. Members of other faiths can worship privately, but non-Muslim houses of worship may not be built. The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, otherwise known as Saudi’s morality or religious police, enforce Sharia law on the streets. Apostasy and blasphemy against Sunni Islam can be punished by death.

Also on the list is Sudan, its constitution partially protects religious freedom but restricts apostasy, blasphemy and defamation of Islam. Muslim women are also prevented from marrying non-Muslim men. The country’s vaguely worded apostasy law discourages proselytizing of non-Muslim faiths.. Muslims generally enjoy social, legal and economic privileges denied to the Christian minority population.

In Uzbekistan proselytizing is prohibited in Uzbekistan, and religious groups must undergo a burdensome registration process with the government to enjoy what limited religious freedom is permitted in the country. More than 2,000 religious groups have registered with the government, the vast majority of which are Muslim but also include Jewish, Catholic and other Christian communities. Registered and unregistered groups are sometimes subject to raids, during which holy books have been destroyed. Individuals and groups deemed “extremists,” often for national security concerns rather than specific aspects of their faith, are imprisoned under harsh conditions and tortured, sometimes to death.

For example, the Constitution of Afghanistan states that Afghanistan shall be an Islamic Republic, independent, unitary, and an indivisible state. The sacred religion of Islam shall be the religion of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Followers of other faiths shall be free within the bounds of law in the exercise and performance of their religious rights.

JOSEPHUS MWhile in Argentina, Article 2 of the Constitution of Argentina reads: “The Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion.” Article 14 guarantees all the inhabitants of the Nation the right “to profess freely their religion. Freedom of religion in Bangladesh, the country was founded as a secular state, but Islam was made the state religion in the 1980s. The Constitution of Bangladesh establishes Islam as the state religion but also allows other religions to be practiced in harmony.

Egypt has a predominantly Islamic population. The Constitution of Egypt makes no reference to an official State Church because Egypt is an Arab Republic that recognizes Islam as the State Religion. Egypt’s largest Christian population, which makes up approximately 10% of Egypt’s total population follow the Coptic Orthodox Church. Regarding freedom of religion in Malaysia, Islam is the official state religion and the Constitution of Malaysia provides for limited freedom of religion, notably placing control upon the ‘propagation’ of religion other than Islam to Muslims, a fundamental part of a number of other religions.

By: Josephus M. Gray
 Paris, France/Phone: 0033751996321
 Email: Graymoses@Yahoo.Com


Mae Moore
Josephus, those states or countries you pointed out constitutionalizing a particular religion for the state are right and such constitutionality is legitimately quite in place. The populations of those countries have been of such religion from the founding of those countries. That is not the case with Liberia where the bulk of the populations practiced different religions before the coming of the so called Christians!

The followers of the Prophet Muhammad DO NOT NECESSARILY SEE THE MOVE to constitutionalise Christianity as a direct threat to their faith and alienate them. Rather, the Muslims just as the hundreds and thousands of Liberians see the move to constitutionalise christianity as vain, foolish, silly, DANGEROUS,PURPOSELESS, and medievally BACKWARD!
Mae Moore at 04:13PM, 2015/08/25.
Bai M. Gbala, Sr.
Indeed, we commend the President of the Nation for her courageous, public declaration, in opposition to the proposed constitutional amendment that “Liberia should be (declared in Law) a Christian Nation, approved by the Constitutional Conference held, recently, in Gbarnga, Bong County, under the auspices of the National, Constitutional Review Commission (CRC).

The President’s action demonstrates the requisite qualities of leadership, particularly, political leadership of a people uninformed, relatively, on critical issues of nation-building or politics, a leadership chosen by the same people – followers - because leadership, by its name and designation, to lead, knowledgeable, principled, honest, articulate, liberal, rational, progressive, caring, dedicated to their service and most importantly, a teacher of the followers, the people.

This issue, deeply personal and highly explosive, is likely to tear this small nation apart, Christians & Supporters versus Muslims-Islamists, although they lived together for centuries in peace and harmony until, quite, recently. Now, Christians and Supporters claim that the Liberian Nation should and must be declared, in law, a Christian nation, because they say that, “Liberia was founded on Christian Principles”. The Muslims-Islamists disagree.

But, was Liberia founded, based, on Christian principles, in fact? The answer is NO.

Research evidence shows, conclusively, that the White American Colonization Society (ACS) bears the major responsibility for the founding of Liberia in response to the dilemma of what to do with the Black population in America. Robert Finley, a Presbyterian pastor, wrote a letter to a colleague on February 15, 1815, that “Everything connected with their (black people’s) condition, including their colour, is against them; could not the rich and benevolent devise means to form a colony on some part of the Coast of Africa, similar to the one at Sierra Leone, which might gradually induce many free blacks to go. . . . We should be cleared of them; we should send to Africa a population partially civilized and Christianized for its benefits. . . ”.

The ACS was formed in Washington, D. C., USA, for the sole intent and purpose that the slaves not be restored to liberty, except for transportation out of the continental USA; and that since the freed, black people can never mingle with the white people, the only way of doing them good is to remove them from the US to the “distant land of their forefathers”. The 13th Report of the ACS continues, “The present number of this unfortunate, degraded, and anomalous class of inhabitants cannot be much short of half a million, and the number is fast increasing. They are, emphatically, a mildew upon our fields, a scourge to our backs, and a stain upon our escutcheon. To remove them, is mercy to ourselves, and justice.” Charles Fenton Mercer of Virginia favoured removal of the freed black people because they were “every day polluting and corrupting public morals, and more than half the freed black females were prostitutes and half of the males were rogues.” All highlight mine.

At the first general conference of those that favoured colonization of the freed slaves, Elias Caldwell explained: “It was expedient, because the free blacks have a demoralizing influence on our civil institutions . . . . Africa seemed the best place to send them . . . the climate was agreeable to the coloured man's constitution, they could live cheaply there, and above all other reasons, they could carry civilization and Christianity to the Africans. . . . With the promise of equality, a homestead, and a free passage, no black would refuse to go” (Alexander, 82).

But refuse many did. Most Blacks distrusted the ACS and made their opposition loud and clear, claiming the USA as their place of nativity and expressing outrage that they should be banished from a land they viewed as their own.

Our African-American, founders were forced to emigrate to this land of their ancestors in search for human dignity, justice and peace, particularly, racial justice and human dignity. Therefore, Liberia was founded on principles of race and skin color discrimination/segregation with profound system of hatred and injustice.

Although our founding fathers brought, with them, inherited notions of Christianity, teachings of one of the world’s great prophets and religious teachers, Jesus Christ, of ancient Israel, but Liberia was founded NOT on Christian principles, such that can be defended in fact, law, logic or the political domain.

Religious Faith is a strong, personal belief in something – heaven, life after death, for examples - for which there is no proof; a belief without evidence; things hope for without evidence of reality; and belief in things not seen, but hope for without proof. In all of this pushing-and-shoving, religious fanatics or dogmatic, true-believers who wave the Koran and Bible in support of their respective Faiths, have yet to produce evidence of life after death by a live individual who returned from the great beyond!!

Major Concerns – about Religion in Politics

Those Liberians who are concerned about this Christian Principles thing, especially, the Muslims-Islamist Liberians, have nothing to fear from the Christians, traditional believers, non-believers, etc. But there is much to fear from and be suspicious of the Muslims-Islamists. Just watch the nightly, Evening World News on television or turn to the world news page in the newspaper.

You will be treated, in the “on-going, international ‘trouble spots’, by Muslim-Islamists atop mounted anti-aircraft artillery, brandishing AK-47 assault rifles, shoulder-mounted RPGs and preaching Islamic state, a single person-rule, sharia law of beheadings and stoning to death in a state that does not recognize women’s rights; other “trouble spots” on our African continent include Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, North Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia, all dominated by demand for Islamic State Muslims-Islamists; the newest and most dangerous sensation operating in Nigeria and Cameroons is Boko Haran - Muslim-Islamist, sectarian violence of abductions, rape and murders. Liberians, therefore, have reasons to be worried and suspicious of Muslims-Islamists, who, evidently, show no regard for human life. Finally, religious faith is a very personal matter, a conviction or belief that should and must be confined to the church, temple, synagogue, mosque, tabernacle, etc., etc. Let us confine Religion – any religion – to the places of worship, out of politics”.

Bai M. Gbala, Sr. at 09:13PM, 2015/08/26.
Volusion Custom Development at 02:59AM, 2017/09/12.

Post your comment

You can use following HTML tags: <a><br><strong><b><em><i><blockquote><pre><code><img><ul><ol><li><del>

Confirmation code:

Comments script

© 2015 by The Perspective
To Submit article for publication, go to the following URL: