Liberia: The Making of National Heroes and Heroines - Part I

By: Emmanuel Dolo, Ph.D.

The Perspective
Atlanta, Georgia
January 20, 2016



For too long, I have struggled with a question that has loomed ever since I wrote my last book entitled Ethnic Tensions in Liberia’s National Identity Crisis: Problems and Possibilities in 2007. It was not until the dual citizen debate emerged with new vigor this year, that I thought to go back and revisit this question. I have asked myself repeatedly, “Why is it that Liberian society does not have national heroes and heroines?” The emphasis here is on national heroes and heroines. But then again, if you mention heroes or heroines, you must mention “villains, even scoundrels” as well. The latter is just as important as the former because together, they offer us a full slate to gauge where we have been and where we are going as a nation; and which virtues to emulate and which vices to cast-off. 

Who are national heroes and heroines? They are individuals and groups of people who display extraordinary bravery and valor by performing principled acts and/or enacting ingenious creativity and innovation in politics, music, education, peace building, science, etc. Nearly every society that I have visited acknowledges the moral courage and constructive attributes displayed by its citizens so as to spur others to similar noble deeds, thus setting the pathways to ongoing national development. Through this, the whole society awards these individuals a unique place in history with national honor. It can take the shape of naming a monument, street, library, hospital, school, scholarship, holiday, and others in their honor.

But in Liberian society, many of its citizens who have set new records in their fields of practice, earned notable commendations at home and abroad are seldom celebrated in our history books, least to say, recognized nationally. If you were to bring together a diverse segment of Liberians and listed an array of actors from different spheres of life: politics, the academy, arts, law, music, literature, business and more, and then begin to ask them to pinpoint national heroes and heroines, you would possibly get varying answers pointing to people who only serve their parochial interest, rather than the national interest. By that I mean people will point to names that have served their political party, county, clan, village, tribe, etc.

It would prove difficult for the crowd assembled to point to a national hero because since Liberia’s birth as a nation state, a certain negative tendency has gripped our character and bogged us down. We have found it difficult to pride ourselves on each other’s accomplishments or to own theirs as ours collectively. The “tribal” bug, has bitten us, meaning the ethnocentric antagonism has divided us so much that it is too hard for Liberians, most of us, to become gleeful about the positive contributions of each of us to national development, whether at home or abroad. Argue as hard as you may for empirical evidence, but the answer lies in the negative and derisive vibes that emanate from radio and other media outlets daily about one another. We hear slews of outlandish comments from professed leaders moaning peers and other citizens. It is so difficult to hear positive statements coming out about our leaders and people who herald one act of patriotism by our leaders are cowed into silence by declaring them paid agents without evidence.

If there is anything that has bedeviled and haunted us from our past and threatens to derail us from noble accomplishments in human history, it is the envy, jealousy, and adamant resentment we have toward one another reminiscent of self-hate. No Liberian is good enough to deserve national acclaim, many tell themselves. We must find something wrong, a blot on their character so that such award, if any, must look undeserving. Sadly, it appears such tendency also finds its way in the recording of our history – we cherry pick who makes history depending on the author of the document.  

There are some keen observers of Liberian History who reflect on the beginning of the state as the place where the seeds of this tendency was planted. Although it just did not stop there. It has gone on for time in memorial. These observers note that Liberians are steep in symbolism. We have very hard regards for symbols. We go all out to destroy the symbols of those other Liberians that we do not like. The Americo-Liberians or Settlers destroyed the symbols of the indigenous people. They changed the likes of Dozua Island to Providence Island. Dugbor (Bassa) and Ducor (Kpelle) was changed to the City of Christ and later to Monrovia. The former honored the Christianizing and civilizing mission. The latter honored President James Monroe of the Settler’s sending nation – the United States of America. As these symbols were changed without the consent of the indigenous populations who considered them sacred and/or significant, resentment and disenchantment arose. Unfortunately, those who came on the Christianizing and civilizing missions did not know or refuse to acknowledge that God was in touch with the other cultures. Therefore, to them, it was important for them to facilitate God’s entry through their Christianizing and Civilizing missions. Clearly, these missions misunderstood the social context, and the ambitions were misused by uninformed people who set the foundations the systematic undermining of efforts on all sides to build an integrated and inclusive society.

The de facto one party state seemed ready for an implosion since the Americo-Liberians monopolized access to the nation’s resources and controlled political power while suppressing the indigenous majority. After 133 years of settler rule, in 1980, when the indigenous soldiers, descendants of those whose shrines and sacred places were desecrated in the name of the Christianizing and Civilizing missions took power forcefully and violently, and they too revenged. They broke down monuments of those who referred to themselves as the “Pioneers of Liberia.” They cancelled holidays that represented the heroes and heroines of the Americo-Liberian rule and replaced them with a singular statute: the Statute of the Unknown Soldier. The Revolution of the 1970s were interrupted by a ragtag army which carried out “another garden variety of African coup” interpreted the moment as that of instant prosperity, jobs for their families and friends, big vehicles, seizure of the properties of those that they overthrew, hence, a sense of entitlement sowed, thus spiraling the nation toward chaos. When the Doe regime fell, the statute of the Unknown Soldier was destroyed by the succeeding warring faction and/or government. This orgy of mutual antagonisms has caused Liberia much in terms of reconciliation, unity, peace, and progress.

We have systematically destroyed the image of Africa’s oldest Republic, Liberia. It did not just happen by destroying physical monuments. In many instances we have become antagonistic towards one another and allowed our personal interest to suppress the talents of others who could certainly serve Liberia so well. For example, Liberia is the founding member of the United N. Vice President Clarence Simpson was in San Francisco, California, where he signed the Charter of the UN on behalf of Liberia. The UN has had several Secretary Generals from many countries, including Kofi Anan of Ghana. And yet, 60 years later, no Liberian has ascended to that position. This has happened not because we have not and do not have qualified people, but people in authority, often would not second fellow Liberians who are qualified for these kinds of high level international positions. Could it be the fear that if these Liberians get outstanding international acclaims, they would later emerge on the domestic scene as national leaders to replace those who recommend or second them?

I interviewed former Minister of Information, Emmanuel Bowier, while researching this article. He recounted a story which illustrates the culture of envy, unsophisticated thinking, and sheer antagonism that underlies the lack of national heroes and heroines, which is the theme of this article. Dr. Rocheforte Lafeyette Weeks, Sr – former President of the University of Liberia, served as Secretary of State, now dubbed Foreign Minister under President William R. Tolbert. Weeks’ brother Anthony owned Auriole Enterprises, the producers of schools uniforms and importer of furniture, and even an engineering business. The brother of President Tolbert, Steven owned Mesurado Group of Companies. There emerged a fierce competition between the two companies. It even led to a protest article against Mesurado Group of Companies for wanting to swallow other businesses by the journalist and activist, Albert Porte entitled: Liberianization or Gobbling businesses? Rocheforte Weeks, according to Bowier disclosed to some close friends, while abroad on official business that he would resign as Foreign Minister because of growing tension that attended to his family business, which he would later lead as Managing Director of its Engineering component. That information went through the grapevine rapidly and reached the President. The system monitored the Foreign minister’s movement in the US until he boarded his flight back to Liberia. Soon thereafter, while still airborne, the President of Liberia, William R. Tolbert announced Weeks’ dismissal for lack of confidence. Weeks who had obtained a Master of Law degree from Howard University in the US had previously served as Assistant Attorney General of the Republic prior to becoming President of the University of Liberia.

Shortly after Weeks’ dismissal, the International Court of Justice announced a vacancy for a judge. Weeks applied. As it is the custom, he had to get the endorsement of his country of origin for consideration. The Government of Liberia, under President Tolbert recommended him highly. What happened in the interim was that Auriole and Mesurado mended fences because the stakeholders in the conflict came from Crozerville and Bensonville, two Upriver settlements whose people fell in the category of “newcomers” – those that came several years after the original landing of the Elizabeth the Mayflower in 1822. Through a network of family connections, fraternal associations, and religious linkages, Auriole and Mesurado seemed to have reconciled, leading to the endorsement of Weeks to serve on the International Court of Justice. Dr. Weeks’ application for the position was rejected. Other contenders, notably from African nations used the announcement – the press release from the Executive Mansionreferring to Weeks as being dismissed for lack of confidence as an issue of integrity. And that was the end of that situation.

Perhaps one of the reasons that we do not have national heroes and heroines is that we individually and collectively undermine one another. We find it hard to acknowledge the good in one another. Sometimes, we inadvertently destroy people’s careers for selfish reasons by tarnishing people simply because the individual failed to fulfill a corrupt deed. Which of our leaders are we willing to allow to be highlighted in history as one of Africa’s greatest heroes? What would it take away from each of us if that occurs? Which of our intellectuals would we honor for their exceptional brilliance, even if they are not your kinsmen or kinswoman? Are ethnic bias as well as personal and political prejudices standing in the way of us honoring our notable sons and daughters?

In recent times, the concept of Liberian “citizenship” has featured heavily in our public debates largely in connection with the dual citizenship of Liberian nationals (former refugees) after resettlement who gained citizenship status in their host nations. This debate places us in the throes of queries regarding some big questions: What is Liberia? Who is Liberian? What is Liberian identity? What forces and factors unify us as Liberians? When a force, natural and man-made threatens the landscape that we call Liberia, what will bring us together as a collective unit, a congregate and aggregate to defend us as a common core? Do we have a Liberia that we all would die for? What is that Liberia?

Here is the important point. For the entire life cycle of this nation, we Liberians have seen one another through the lens of ethnicity, class, gender, place, vocation, etc. We have not valued the person outside of these narrow confines, the tribal system. If come 2017, we elect a President solely because of his or tribal affiliation or other parochial identities, even selfish reasons – to get a job as a minister or enrich oneself, we would have failed the generations to come so miserably that it will take generations to recover. As a people, we now require a leader that will transcend these divides and emerge as a national hero that all of us can own and embrace because they represent the Liberian mosaic. We want a person that will help us evolve a sense of citizenship that is inclusive and integrated. We want a genuine national hero to emerge come 2017, who will help us overcome our suspicion of one another and in doing so, reconcile us one to another.

The Author: Emmanuel Dolo is the President and CEO of the Center for Liberia’s Future, an independent think tank based in Duazon, Liberia.

A good try at looking at elements that have led to the destruction of our national fabric. Most of the examples given are more or less description of the symptoms instead of the real cause.
The main categories are: 1) Our passive approach to our history;
2) Our hero worship of the achievement of others;
3)Self hate transformed to hating those who look like you.
4)"Othering" and forgeting that they too are part of the same country.
4)Combination of these conjuring up age old human instincts of selfishness, destructive potential, conniving against "others".
In sum, #1,2,and 3 are the necessary precursors for #4(of which you gave vivid examples).
As the result, Liberia's best brains are in its cemeteries, without much benefit from them as a nation.
Part II of the article, could delve into the concrete steps to overcome the handicaps posed by these precursors.. Ending this note in politics (ie who will be emerge as national hero for 2017) is shortsighted as the precursors have been swept over fully.
Until then, my prediction is : no national hero will emerge 2017 or beyond; only different permutations of Warmongers and War profiteers in one shape or another to take us for another painful, rhetoric failed ride as the current batch of you for the last decade or so have done.!!! This should not be too difficult to see, I hope.

zumo at 10:26AM, 2016/01/20.
Error: #5) should be the second #4, ie should be "Combination of these conjuring up.... and line 10 should read: In sum, #1,2,3, and 4 .......precursors for #5....etc

Excuse the numering error.
zumo at 10:30AM, 2016/01/20.
Emmanuel Dolo
Mr. Zumo, thank you. I will certainly take your suggestions into serious consideration. I am glad that a conversation has started. My personal email is Please share your thoughts if you have additional ones.
Emmanuel Dolo at 11:43AM, 2016/01/20.
Mae Moore
The 17 NOCOS who on April 12, 1980 put their lives on the line and put an end to the semi-apartheid system in Liberia shall always be remembered as NATIONAL HEROES! Liberia has A NEW NATIONAL HERO AND A NEW NATIONAL HEROINE. The Senator Ambassador George Manneh Weah IS LIBERIA'S NO. 1 NATIONAL HERO!


With a Nobel award, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf would have gone down in history as Weah and Gbowee with such distinction, but being a war criminal, and the most corrupt and incompetent President ever in Liberia's history, not to even mention the dubious manner in which got that award, SHE IS A VILLAIN AND A SCOUNDREL AND UNFIT TO BE A NATIONAL HEROINE!

Didwo Tweh, Du Fahnbulleh- aka H. Boima Fahnbulleh Sr., Albert Porte, S.David Coleman,and Gabriel Baccus Matthews are NATIONAL HEROES!

Mae Moore at 02:24PM, 2016/01/21.
Dempster Yallah
The very partisansip alluded to in the author's diagnosis as one of the social maladies affecting Liberians fair and open-mindedness for heroes and heroines identification and celebration, is demonstrated in Ms. Moore's reaction to this discussion. The spectrum of characters Ms. Moore nominated here, as examples of Liberians whom she sees as exemplary heroes and heroines could have surely passed most Liberians' litmus test as well for that consideration, that is provided she did not veer into the disparagement of the others she so vilified. Reiterating the author's point as exactly why we don't get pass tribes, parties and fraternities in how we judge or appreciate others' contribution to the body politic. Like they say about garage sale, "one man's junk is another's gem."

Also, I failed to see the correlation between the crab mentality as moral of this article vis-a-vis the Tolbert-Weeks example. Whereas, neither president Tolbert nor his brother played any sinister or hypocritical role in the Weeks failed attempt for the justiceship on the IC. If anything, that example could be seen as how we ought to be supportive and elevating of one another as Liberians, no matter our petty differences socially or politically.

Perhaps I should add that when the Bible referenced that prophets are most often not reognized in their home towns, it might have had Liberia in that thought. Also and as a consolation in this regard, it is worth noting that Liberians do recognize and celebrate their heros and heroines, but only when they are dead and gone.

Finally, this article is a far departure from the author's previous posture as well on this very proclivity of disparaging others' contribution to the transformation of Liberia. A coarse exchange between one surrogate of his and I is archived on this, over one of such vitriols.

But the epiphany as a byproduct of time and age is good for society hence, we embrace the paradigm shift. ...Carpe diem!
Dempster Yallah at 12:02AM, 2016/01/22.
Emmanuel Dolo
Dear Dempster,

Thank you for your thoughts. However, I still maintain my position on the events of the 1980s and thereafter. With time, history has tended to prove me right. Indeed, this article does not contradict those views.

My articles about the period are still available on the World Wide Web. My two academic books on the subject are also available. My assessment of the period and the actors may be different from yours intellectually, but to construe it as disparaging the actors is far from the truth, but you are entitled to your perspectives.

No "epiphany" has occurred here. The period in question and the actors must be assessed from different vantage points. This is what the rigor of academic life requires. We all who lived through that era cannot sing from the same hymn book, perhaps that might be the expectation.

I will not engage you further on this particular subject. I have moved on passed nearly 30 years ago. I agree that we all have aged. And therefore, I am preoccupied now with administering an independent think tank dedicated to exploring and enhancing Liberia's future.

Best regards,

Emmanuel Dolo
Emmanuel Dolo at 04:51PM, 2016/01/22.
Guawon Siasia
Emmanuel, thanks for starting a conversation that may interest a lot of us who have the same view. But, the question becomes what are the criteria or what qualifies an individual to be awarded a national hero status?
To me, a simple deed of selfless exercise that may effect the lives of a few hundred Liberians will be enough for me.

You and I are of the same age group. If remember area "O" and Area M school that later turned into St. Joseph School and then Carroll High School; you will know where I am coming from. This was our beginning and live in the '70S as young adults.

I am not writing this to deviate from the primary reason for writing this article but to add a little story because most men are view by their character, what they stand for coupled with their background check.
This behavior of Liberians not wanting to recognize another Liberian for good and noble deeds is an aged old phenomenon. If I were to be asked to give who would be nominated on my list, it would go like this:

President------------- William R. Tolbert Jr.
Sports (soccer)------- George Weah
Press----------------- Albert Porte
Political Awareness--- Barcus Matthew
Entertainment/Music--- Morris Dorley
Drama and Art--------- Peter Ballah

The other guy whom I would like to nominate but will leave out because his relevance was local to Bong County is Harold McGowan. This guy came to Liberia as a peace corps volunteer in the '70s. He changed his citizenship from an American to Liberian. Do you know that he came back to the US during the Liberian crisis on resettlement? Even though he improved and organized the game of basketball in Bong County, little is known about him that he was one of the greatest professional grade school teacher who laid the foundation for most of us whom he lectured. I was very happy when the upcountry basketball tournament has been named in his honor.
Guawon Siasia

Academics /Basketball --- Harold McGowan

Guawon Siasia at 10:43AM, 2016/01/23.
Dempster Yallah
Dear Rev. Dr. Emmanuel Dolo,

Conventional wisdom tells us it is duplicitous and hypocritical when one tells others to do as they say, but not as they do. I am therefore disappointed by the revelation that your denigration once (in a book) of certain elements of Liberian political genre as "users," people who could be considered "heroes and heroines" to many others, still stands.

What then could be the essence of your current commentary, when it's kernel is obviously antithetical to an inherent disposition you refuse to shake off? By such example, is it not logical to conclude hence, that no matter the exemplification of heroics by any individual or group of people to merit consideration as "heroes and/or heroines," that such edification is therefore subjective and to the eyes of the appraiser? Such presupposition has the unintended consequence of rendering your expose moot.

What I gathered from your article was a shared sense of exasperation. Exasperation over the cultural and regretful tendency of Liberians in the habit of relegating and in some instances disparaging most fellow Liberians, who could be considered as "heroes and/or heroines," for their exemplary contributions to society or the Liberian body politic. Instead, it seems no Liberian or just very few have ever qualified to be celebrated as "heroes or heroines," and as I said earlier, after they are dead.

I too, have expressed similar sentiments in other places I the past. That Liberia is one country that appears to have no heroines or heroes, by virtue of how anybody who could be considered as such is trounced, berated and dismissed outright by cynics or now foes.

And my earlier comment by the way, was predicated in the premature assumption that with the passage of time, places, so many other individuals and things in our individual lives and the associated wisdom as byproduct, all of us were now amendable in our perspectives, alliances and choices, etc. Adjusting to reality, you might say. If you took those comments as an affront as suggestive in your rasping response, what can I say? "Da your kpoi meni." ..Carpe diem!
Dempster Yallah at 12:42PM, 2016/01/23.
sylvester moses
“If come 2017, we elect a President solely because of his or tribal affiliation or other parochial identities, even selfish reasons – to get a job as a minister or enrich oneself, we would have failed the generations to come so miserably that it will take generations to recover”. That seems to be the meat around excess fat, and echoes the recent “tribal” tirade of Minister Konneh. Someone said that it informs a PR offensive by EJS’s brightest, and even joked that more of the same speculations should be expected. Interestingly, President Sirleaf wasn’t elected on tribal basis, so what’s the fuss; or do they fear that her dismal decade performance would encourage the vast majority to vote for ethnic reasons?

Actually, who cares as long as the candidate has practical policy programs, and possesses, at least, these qualities: unbiased, capable, trustworthy, compassionate, and courage to curtail corruption. A serious talk about tribe as a major factor in 2017 wouldn’t have gained traction had EJS not allowed unresponsive, unaccountable, and ineffective governance to squander political capital accrued in 2005 and 2011. Apparently, along the way, hubris misled her to forget that humans entrusted her power to wield on their behalf, and definitely no deity designed that outcome. Reportedly, in 2005 she claimed to have hailed from the Gola and Kru tribes through father and mother respectively – what an irony.
sylvester moses at 01:18PM, 2016/01/23.
Charles Cheapo Price
Mrs. Mae Moore

We have inflicted so much egregious harm to our collective psyche that in determining who is to be considered a “hero/heroine” among us is a difficult proposition.

For example: you included the 17 enlisted soldiers who assassinated Tolbert and ushered in a new era to the socio-political life of Liberia on your list of heroes. Notwithstanding, If you were to ask members of other demographics within our society how they felt about this selection, you will receive a barrage of mixed feelings or antagonistic responses. Why? “Two or more people will always interpret an event, an individual, a place or a thing in radically different ways. “

Nobody is perfect. However, the history and character of heroes and heroines have always been men and women who were very altruistic. They put their personal interests aside for the sake of the betterment of their nations. Their call to duty went beyond tribal affinity, religious affiliation, gender, and so forth. Notwithstanding, the regime of Samuel Kanyon Doe was replete with terror and rabid tribalism.

If the former 17 enlisted men were celebrated as heroes, questions such as these might arise,

• How can they be heroes when 600 Nimba County children were forcibly abducted; taken to a military base and buried alive in a dug trench simply because citizens of that county decried his rule of terror?

• How can they be heroes when Doe’s SATU forces forcibly entered a Lutheran church in Sinkor, Monrovia and in a very macabre fashion gunned down over 300 innocent men, women, and children simply because he felt that the group included citizens from Nimba who were already fleeing the atrocities of the war?

• How can they be heroes when their reckless ambition to create a tribal hegemony instead of a government of political inclusiveness culminated into new social tensions which finally catapulted the nation into a devastating civil war? The master sergeant, who came to power promising to return the country to a democratic civilian leadership after five years since according to him, he was just a poor boy and a farmer, reneged on his promise after tasting the sweet wine of tyranny and draconian military rule.

Why it is that most of Africa is now shying away from the classic coup d’état as a way of effecting social change?

Coup d’états are blood sports; they often shatter the social, moral and political fabrics of societies; and they leave indelible scars on a nation. Very rarely do they occur without sharing blood and traumatizing people. This is not good for a closely knitted society especially one like ours where everybody is somewhat related to another person based on inter-tribal relationships or other kinships.

Certainly, the 17 enlisted men changed the social dialogue and political dynamics of the country but including them on the lists of heroes is untenable because their regime became marred with horrific executions, political witch hunting, the suppression of freedom of speech, and so forth. The men who named and styled their government upon their ascendency to power as the, “People’s Redemption Council”, finally became the People’s Repression Council.

Where is Charles G. Taylor today? As you are already aware, he is lingering in a prison in Great Britain. Why did the World Court incarcerate a man who as I learned is being hailed by some segments of our society as a hero? Did the panel of judges lose their minds not knowing a hero from a despot or a human butcher?

By the way, why is He (Taylor) not included on your list of heroes Mrs. Moore? Certainly others could interpret this as you being bias and you could likewise interpret theirs as they being unfair. In other words, one “man’s hero” is the other “man’s villain” and the other “man’s villain” is “another man’s hero”.

Another example, what if I were to suggest that President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf should be considered as one of Liberia’s national heroines because in recent memories she has been the president under whose leadership the citizens have enjoyed some relative peace and calm.

Without any shadow of doubt and judging from your writings Ellen would definitely not suit your profile. Why? This kind of confusion is bound to arise when an issue of this magnitude is left to the personal choices of polarized groups whose perceptual filters varied along many dividing lines including deep seated hatred for one another.

Therefore, just like the True and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) that was setup to stabilize the country after the civil war, a neutral body should be setup free from political influence and controversies. This body should be delegated with the tasks of clearly defining a framework within which such matters can be decided. Leaving the choosing of heroes and heroines in the hands of private individuals will divide the country even further along tribal lines.

Thanks for sharing your thoughts on this very hot button issue.

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