Harnessing our expectation (Part II))



By Sunny Nyemah


The Perspective
Atlanta, Georgia
February 28, 2006



Appraising the Funding Process of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Could it be the basis for capacity building, and good governance in Liberia, or was Liberia taken for a ride by UNDP, and its Implementing partners?


According to Peter F. Drucker, Freedom is not fun, it is not the same as individual happiness, nor is it security, peace or progress. It is a responsible choice We as Liberians have not understood the true meaning of freedom; we have compromise our integrity as a nation to the point where the rest of world has no respect for our ability to self-governed, and equitably provide for our suffering masses. A case in point is how funds raised for the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement were managed, and whether the deliverables (priority outcomes) that were earmarked were delivered or nearly delivered. This commentary will tried to appraised key components of the CPA implementation (Governance, infrastructure, Restoration of productive capacity and livelihoods, Economic management & strategy development, and Basic services). Furthermore, it will look at the involvement of the National Transitional Government, and how the ordinary Liberian benefited.



0ver half of billion dollars was pledged at the February 2004 international donor conference on Liberia held in New York The basis for the conference was a Needs Assessment conducted jointly by the United Nations Development Group (UNDG), and the World Bank Group with endorsement from the National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL). This document was well written as evidenced by the inflow of pledges. In order to have some understanding of what was included in this document, we will try to answer the following questions with regards to the pledges, and the so-called assessed needs of Liberia:


What was the implementation structure or framework? What role did the NTGL played in the implementation process? What were the safeguards put in place to minimized corruption from both implementing partners (UNDP, and NTGL)? How much awareness and, or sensitization was carried out with regards to ordinary Liberians? Did it achieve the intended outcomes? Or what are some of the tangibles that were derived from the implementation that could be used by the elected governments as it moves forward?


Understanding the implementation Framework:

A framework was established called the Results- Focused Transition framework (RFTF). It was fronted or headed by the National Transitional Government of Liberia, and co-chaired by the UN Development Group. The principal role of this framework was to serve as sponsor of the project, from a strategy level. An implementation and monitoring committee called RIMCO was established to monitor implementation activities-the apex body that was overseeing the political, and strategy implementation. It was chaired by NTGL, and co-haired by UNMIL, and World Bank. UNDP Direct Execution Service Center Modality (DEX) was responsible for the receipt and disbursement of all pledges, while a RIMCO Support Office (RSO) was tasked to ensure line ministries were in position to monitor and coordinate the humanitarian and reconstruction efforts, as well as the day-to-day responsibilities for all activities under the framework. A National Aide Coordinator headed RSO, with support from a Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, and an Administrative assistant. With such a convoluted implementation structure, why was corruption so rampant? It is a question that needs to be answered not only by NTGL, but also by UNDP.


Let take a summary view of expected deliverables (what should have been done) V.S. actual deliverables (what has been done thus far):


Earmarked Cluster & Sector Per Needs Assessment

Priority Outcome (Expected Deliverables) Per Needs Assessment



Allocated amount per sector

Actual Priority Outcome or Results (Deliverables) as of the End 2004/ 2005

Are the Outcomes realistic or commensurate with the allotted amount?








     UNMIL Deployment




     Arm Forces restructuring


          Established full access throughout Liberia

          Regional Focus



          Complete Restructuring and deployment of restructured Arm Forces

          Establish early warning mechanism

Underwritten separately by UNMIL/U.S. African Union







Election was held throughout Liberia, an indication of full access

        Yes for UNMIL Deployment



        No for Arm Forces restructuring (Delay). What cause the delay? How soon can it be achieved?

Disarmament, Demobilization, rehabilitation, and Reintegration of Ex-combatants


        Complete the disarmament and demobilization of 53,000 combatants, including 1,000women, 21,000 child and 1,400 disabled combatants.

        Collect and destroy 70,000 weapons

        Reunify 10,500 child ex-combatants with their families through family tracing



          Enroll 26,000 ex-combatants in reintegration programmes

          Reunify remaining 10,500 child ex-combatants with their families through family tracing programmes or place them in community-based care.

          Established field offices provide counseling and referral services to ex-combatants.



        2005-$26.2 M



        101,495 ex-combatants were disarmed and demobilized

        28,314 weapons were collected and destroyed










     Only 12,202 ex-combatants are enrolled, and 6,520 are waiting

     No record on whether 10,500 child soldiers have been united with their families.

     The establishment of field offices is pending

     The outcomes are Somehow realistic, but about fifty percent of the targeted outcomes were not achieved within 2004/2005

     What cause the delay?

     How soon can the remaining outcome be achieved





     Far below the targeted goal







Refugees, returnees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)


       Deploy Transition Recovery Teams (TRTs) to all nine major counties of return

       Initiate Town Community Development Council (TCDC) programmes in communities throughout the country


       Essential restorative support (transport, household items, food assistance),

       Social protection and legal assistance and basic social services (health, education and WATSAN) for up to 250,000 returnees, 73,000 third-country refugees in Liberia and 490,000 IDPs with continuing support to IDP camps and

       The establishment of stepping stone (transit) camps as necessary; inputs to community-level institutions for effective, sustainable reintegration.


















       Nothing significant has been achieved in this area

       They have set-up district Development Communities; not part of any of the initial justification under IDPs.

       We have not seen any sustaining change in the lives of internally displaced people.

       Nothing measurable has been reported by UNDP

       No realistic outcome

       The results are not commensurate with the allocated amount.

       What is the real situation, are the Liberian people taken for a ride by UNDP, and its implementing partners

       What cause the delay in implementing the priority outcome as outlined in the initial Needs Assessment document?






















Governance, Democratic Development and rule of law


        Assess civil service capacity and systems at the county, district, and town levels

        Develop the capacity of the Civil Service Agency (CSA), including the provision of required hardware and training

        Selection and deployment of Transitional Recovery Teams to county superintendent offices

        Revamp two criminal courts in Monrovia; physical rehabilitation of Supreme Court

        Rehabilitate correctional institutions

        Establish safe and secure separate detention facilities for women and for children

        Establish a fully functioning Ministry of Gender and Development

        Initiate capacity-building of media professionals and strengthening

        Prepare a compendium of civil society organizations in Liberia


        At the time of the national elections, have approximately 2,000 new police officers trained, equipped and deployed in all parts of the nation

        Establish a national Law Reform Commission

        Truth and Reconciliation Commission to carry out hearings with nationwide fact-finding and research, interviews with victims and witnesses, and public hearings. TRC should conclude its work before end-2005 with the issuing of a public report.























































        No report on an assessment of Civil Service Capacity whether at the national or district levels

        Only $750,000. Was used to procured equipment supplies for few govt. ministries

        A so-called technical support was provided through training provided by the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Adm.

        What happens to the formation of Transitional Recovery Teams

        Was the Supreme Court rehabilitated in 2004 or 2005?

        The rehabilitation of Central Prison was commenced in April of 2005 instead of 2004

        What happens to the separate detention center for women and children

        The Ministry of women and gender was established in 2004

        Do we have a compendium of Civil Society Organization in Liberia as promised?

        We have seen the graduation of new police officer in 2006 instead of 2005

        Do we have a National Law Reform Commission

        We understand a truth and Reconciliation Commission has been established and some work as begun work in collecting evidence, where is the public report?


        Result are deceiving, and not commensurate with the allocated amount

        Glaring inadequacy, and mis-management by UNDP

        As we can see for ourselves, compare what was projected and what has been achieved thus far, and make your own conclusion.





























          No; Results not commensurate with the amount spent

Basic services

1.        Health & Nutrition



























































2.        Education















































3.        Community water and sanitation



        Develop and initiate a rehabilitation programme for the revitalization of PHC and maternity wards throughout the country

        Introduce accelerated capacity-building programmes for key categories of staff, starting with in-service training

        Provide institutional support to the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

        Re-activate the cold chain system beginning with a massive increase in the import of vaccines, the re-equipment of health facilities and stations and the strengthening of transport means at county level


        Rehabilitate and equip four key training institutions: the Medical School, the Tubman National Institute of Medical Arts, the Mother Pattem College of Health Sciences and the Phebe School of Nursing

        Address main causes of maternal mortality by expanding maternity wards, including EOC, and strengthening the capacity to provide antenatal care



        Immediate rehabilitation of primary and secondary schools throughout the country.

        Expand access to education through provision to children of emergency education supplies.

        Initiate curriculum review and revision for all levels of the education system around five key subjects: language, mathematics, science, social studies and reading

        Expand teachers and education officers' training activities



        Construct new schools

        Continue capacity-building and support for the MOE

        Continue and expand schools rehabilitation









        Rehabilitate wells and latrine drop holes in and around Monrovia and six other urban areas, as well as in rural areas. Within Monrovia, build trial-enhanced public sanitation blocks (community washing facilities and latrines).

        Build water test labs.

        Establish a centralized database to record available information on the WATSAN situation.



        Increase the level of population in Monrovia and other urban community centers regularly carrying out household water treatment.

        Build or rehabilitate more wells and drop holes throughout the country











































































































































          Nothing significant has been done in the are of Primary Health Care






























          The press needs to visit these facilities to see whether they have been rehabilitated

1.        Medical School

2.        Phebe School of Nursing

3.        TNIMA













          How many primary or secondary schools have been rehabilitated?

          Visit the Ministry of Education to inquire on whether it has received funds or has initiated any work in the area of curriculum review?

          What programs have been put in place to expand teachers education and training?

          Nothing significant has been achieved under this targeted area

          How many new schools have been built?

          What was done in 2005 relative to Ministry of Education in the area of capacity building







          There are no indication whether latrine drops and wells have been rehabilitated

          No indication of water test lab

          Where is the centralized database for WATSAN situation

          Did the UNDP or the Transitional apply some system thinking as to an alternative solution to water & sewer problems in and around Monrovia; such as the partial rehabilitation of the water supply system considering the amount involved:

($17.1 Million dollars)

          It is a waste to spent $17.1M on rehabilitating wells and latrines



          No, result not commensurate with the amount spent

          About 80% of actual deliverables not completed




























          Results not verifiable
























          Results not verifiable

          No report from UNDP

          Targeted area for incoming govt. audit
























          No record of new schools that have been built

          14.3 Million dollar should be available for these projects












          A slap in the face of Liberians

          No realistic outcome


Restoration of productive capacity and livelihoods

1.        Agriculture and food security







































































































2.        Livelihoods and employment generation







        Sufficient food supply and nutritional intake in rural communities and urban areas.

        Seeds and tools provided for food production by over 70,000 families.

        Vegetable seeds and tuber planting materials provided for over 10,000 women

        Breeding livestock distributed (20,000 chickens, 1,000 goats, 1,000 pigs, 200 cattle).

        Training of trainers initiated for capacity building of field workers and farmer groups.

        Vegetable gardens established at 50 schools and health/feeding centers.

        Clearing of swamps that can be prepared immediately for food cultivation.

        500 artisan-fishing families equipped, fish hatcheries and fishponds rehabilitated.

        Four vocational schools refurbished, 10 artisan workshops and 100 blacksmiths equipped.

        Food security and market information system set up including rapid assessments of food supply and crop production and for community-based agro-employment generation.



        Outreach of field workers expanded to 2,900 farmer groups involving 73,000 farmers.

        Community-based agro-processing strengthened through 20 new cassava mills, 50 drying floors, 65-grain mills, and 150 hectares of woodlots.

        Another 500 artisan fishing families equipped, and fishpond development extended.

        All four vocational schools operational, 20 workshops and 300 blacksmiths equipped.

        Second food supplies and crop assessment undertaken.

        Essential government coordination and support services rehabilitated.

        Sector policy for agriculture prepared, including a National Food Security Strategy



        Launch an extensive public works programme that implements Quick-Impact labor-intensive initiatives with a clear focus on employment generation.

        Establish nationwide rural skills development programme, beginning with the construction of community-oriented Resource Centers, with initial micro-finance projects implemented before end-2004.

        Refurbish Ministry of Youth and provide income generation and training support to youth groups in high vulnerability and high return areas








        Launch nationwide housing construction programme, complete with on-the-job skill training component.

        Provide support in vocational training and skills development catered specifically to returnees and vulnerable groups.

        Establish and provide adequate seed funding to institutions with the capacity to vocationally train, mentor, and support youth groups in high vulnerability, rural and return areas.

        Rehabilitate rural infrastructure, including feeder roads linking supply areas to markets.





























































































































































































































          What has UNDP done in terms of food supply?

          Did our farmers received breeding livestocks?

          How many swamps have they clear and prepare for food cultivation

          Who are those 500 artisan-fishing families that have been equipped?

          Which four vocational schools that was refurbished?

          Where is the food security and market system
































          No record of 73,000 farmers that have been strengthened

          No report on the establishment of community-based cassava mills, grain mills or woodlots































          What are those labor-intensive programs that have been initiated?

          How involved is the government-through the Ministry of Labor

          The National Micro-finance Task Force (NMTF) has been established

          8 Liberians send to Turino, Italy for training in micro finance

          Did it cost Liberians $25 million dollars for the above?

          What happens to the resource centers?

          How involved are the youth group in the implementation, especially FLY.





          What is this nationwide housing project?

          What homes are to be constructed?

          What happens to the construction of feeder roads?






          No, nothing verifiable has been achieved


          Results not commensurate with the allocated amount.


          A targeted audit area


















































          No realistic outcome











































          No realistic outcome

          Targeted audit area





































          No realistic outcome

          Targeted audit area





        Conduct feasibility studies for planned improvements to basic infrastructure.

        Initiate provision of basic infrastructure (water, sanitation, feeder roads) to rural areas and small towns, some of which will be instigated through 4R and CDD programmes

        Strengthen capacities in road management and complete detailed design for the rehabilitation and upgrade of the primary road network.

        Assess detailed needs of airport operations and initiate contracts for port improvements.

        Restore availability of minimal power generation and distribution in Monrovia.

        Restore accounting and commercial functions, as well as strengthen management, for electricity, water, sewerage, solid waste management, and telecommunications.

        In Monrovia, increase water production to 8,000 m3/day, reduce (in overall percentage terms) the levels of unaccounted water and eliminate sewage overflows in populated areas.

        In Monrovia, establish one environmentally sound solid waste system, including a new dumpsite, to ensure that all solid waste is cleared within one week.

        In two other urban areas, establish water and environmentally sound solid waste systems, includes new dump sites, to ensure that all solid waste is cleared within one week,

        Restore normal operations of the international earth station and the phone switching exchange.



        Establish contracts for periodic maintenance and the upgrade of the primary road network.

        Remove safety hazards in the port of Monrovia and licensed domestic airports

        Increase power generation capacity to 10-15 MW and complete two pilot rural electrification schemes.

        Complete master plan for the development of the electricity sector and explore options for the participation of the private sector.

        Increase Monrovias water consumption to 18,000 m3/day and continue to reduce (in overall percentage terms) the levels of unaccounted water.

        Maintain the water and sanitation systems established during 2004.

        Complete study for Monrovias long-term sewerage solutions.

        In four other urban areas, establish water and environmentally sound solid waste systems, including new dumpsites, to ensure that all solid waste is cleared within one week.

        Set up a sound regulatory framework for the telecommunications sector.

        Expand fixed phone services to four cities and increase capacity to 10,000 lines










        Roads: US$12.0M

        Airports: US$9.1M

        Ports: US$28.6 M

        Telecom: US$8.4M

        Urban Water and Sanitation: US$26M

        Power: US$46.4M












        $130.5 Million dollars earmarked that has not been accounted for by UNDP with regards to infrastructure

        Ellen Sirleaf govt. is frantically asking assistance in the area of electricity (Power). What happens to the 46.4 million dollars that has been allocated for power from the pledges?

        What happens to water supply?



        What happens to telecommunication?





























































        What happens to roads construction and repair?

        What happens to the power capacity of 10-15 megawatts generation?

        Did UNDP establish a water and sanitation system?

        No, no power in Monrovia

        No, no reports on expected deliverables























































































        No, no power in Monrovia

        No, no reports on expected deliverables












Economic management and development strategy


        Robust, PC-based computerized accounting system.

        Strengthening of budget preparation, execution and reporting.

        Daily reconciliation of accounts with Central Bank of Liberia (CBL) and production of annual consolidated financial statements.

        Internal financial control mechanisms.

        Independent audit agency operating on basis of new audit law.

        Assessment of national statistical and information system needs.

        Review of banking and insurance regulations.

        Review and audit of all banks; and liquidation of State-owned banks.

        Institutional and financial assessment of public enterprises (and implementation of recommendations).

        Comprehensive forest inventory and review of national resource management options.

        Establishment of accounting system and implementation of appropriate fiscal system in relation to forestry and other natural resources.

        Preparatory work for Contract and Monopolies Commission


        One-year review of RFTF results and its impacts.

        Three additional treasuries in three regions.

        Immediate work on PER/MTEF.

        Initiation of interim Poverty Reduction Strategy.

        Operational national statistical and information system.

        Approved and operationalised public procurement law.

        Implementation of regulations for accountable and environmentally sustainable forestry and natural resource management.

        Continued monitoring and evaluation.

        Implementation of recommendations on State Owned Enterprises (SOEs)



        In 2005 a Procurement and financial management system has been implemented at Ministry of Finance & Central Bank


        Where is the independent audit firm? Is Auditing Bureau functional?


        What is the new law that will make the Auditing bureau independent?











































        What is the port on the one year reviewed of the implementation?


        Have we established additional treasuries?





        Yes, some realistic work has been completed in this area

        Yes, the allocated amount is commensurate with the results




















































        No, no verifiable report

        No, the allocated amount is not commensurate with the results





As we critically glance through the above summary, there are many questions that come to mind:


      How was the implementing organization or contractor selected?

      Who determined what is a priority based on received pledges?

      Did the outgoing govt. or incoming government received any report on the actual pledges that were received by UNDP DEX?

      Is the government aware of how much of the received pledges have been disbursed?

      What sort control mechanism government instituted to ensure that pledges received have been used based on needs as indicated in the Needs Assessment proposal?


To answer these questions, we must firstly look at how funding was provided to implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). It has been widely reported that the United States Government has spent over $1 billion dollars on Liberia. It can be deduced that about 90% of this amount was spent on UNMIL for salaries, equipments, and armories. It can also be deduced that the United States Government share of the pledged $500 Million dollars was part of the $1 billion dollars spent. We can therefore conclude that actual pledges to UNDP excluding funding for UNMIL were between $300-400 million dollars. However, for the amount of pledges ($300-400 Million dollars) that were received, based on the donor conference held in New York, it is inconceivable that such amount was spent in two years (2204/2005) without any significant impact on the daily lives of average Liberians.


As we observed in the summary report, about 80% of what was outlined in the donor proposal as targeted deliverables (Things that should been done for the Liberia) has not been achieved as of 2006. It is therefore not nave to suggest that 80% of received pledges has not been spent:


      Over $130 millions dollars was earmarked for road constructions and repairs, power restoration to Monrovia and its environs, rural electrification, and telecommunication restoration,

      $57.8 million dollars was earmarked for Primary Health Care to directly rehabilitate and equip four key training institutions: the Medical School, Tubman National Institute of Medical Arts, Mother Pattem College of Health Sciences and the Phebe School of Nursing.

      $32.6 million dollars was earmarked to build new schools, revised curriculum, and empowered the Ministries of Education

      $25.9 million dollars was earmarked to build youth resource centers, rehabilitate four vocational schools, a quick-impact employment generation through agriculture and to empower the Ministry of Youth & Sport.



How does the govt. address these un-answered questions?


  1. We understand that Ellen govt. has begun an audit of the defunct Gyude Bryant led National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL), which is commendable. However, we admonished the Govt. as a beneficiary of these pledges to request an audit of UNDP activities relative to all pledges that were received and disbursed on behalf of the Liberian Govt.
  2. The govt. should immediately begin a dialogued with UNDP to revisit the implementation modalities of the balance of received pledges (if any) with the objective of ensuring that these funds are channel to priority areas.
  3. Quarterly reports on received and disbursed pledges should be furnished to the govt.
  4. The govt. should ensured that UNDP is only the custodian of the funds.
  5. The selection of projects, and implementing institutions and /or contractors should be recommended by the govt. as the beneficiary.
  6. The Govt. should established an independent team to reviewed the Needs Assessment proposal and inventory all of the deliverables with the intend of assessing what has actually been implemented


Moving forward

As we began to implement the GEMAP, the govt. should be cognizant of the fact that it has the right to question the activities of the so-called consultants. In fact the govt. should have by this time completed the review of credential of all the selected consultants, and request an understanding of the criteria used to select these consultants. Furthermore, the Auditing Bureau; an institution that is independent of the Bureau of General Auditing needs to be strengthened with an amended act that will functionally place it under the legislative branch of govt., and an administrative reporting responsibility to the President.


As we conclude, we have been watching the formation of the government. It is obvious that most of the appointees were appointed based on political accommodation, and not necessarily based on their technical or managerial expertise. We can argued that most the appointees are not current, or practical in their field of schooling, and therefore would experience difficulties in moving their entities forward, especially for State Operated Enterprises (SOEs), or public corporation. To minimize the above problem, govt. must appoint a balanced board of directors that comprised of technocrats, and individual of impeccable characters, and resources. Within each board, there must be an audit committee headed by a board member who understand and has a background in corporate governance.


About the Author: Sunny Nyemah, CISSP, CIA, CIDA, GRI, CEC, is an Adjunct Professor at Metropolitan State University in Minnesota, and Senior Director at Global Equity Lending. He has more than 17 years of assurance background, including accounting, auditing, taxation, financial management, and information systems security and audit.  He holds a Masters of Software Systems (Ms) from St. Thomas University, Minnesota, and is a member the Minnesota Society of Certified Public Accountants (MNCPA)



[i] http://www.lr.undp.org/, United Nation/World Bank Joint Need Assessment February, 2004